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CHEM 1201
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Chapter 4VocabularyElectrolyte A substance whose aqueous solutions contain ionsSolvation Helps to stabilize the ions ina solution and prevent cations and anions from recombiningoWater is a very effective solvent for ionic compounds aka Strong electrolytesPrecipitation Reactions Reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble productPrecipitate An insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solutionoTo predict if a precipitate forms when we mix aqueous solutions of two strong electrolytes we mustNote the ions present in the reactantsConsider the possible cationanion combinationsKnow if any of the combinations is insolubleSolubility The amount of the substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at the given temperature ExchangeMetathesis Reactions Reactions in which cations and anions appear to exchange patterns oAXBYAYBYoTo complete and balance the equation for a metathesis reaction we follow these stepsUse the chemical formulas of the reactants to determine which ions are presentWrite the chemical formulas of the products by combining the cation from one reactant with the anion of the other using the ionic charges to determine the subscripts in the chemical formulasCheck the water solubilities of the productsBalance the equationMolecular Equation Shows the chemical formulas without indication ionic character Complete Ionic Equation An equation with all soluble strong electrolytes shown as ions Spectator Ions Ions that appear in identical forms on both sides of a complete ionic equation and play no direct role in the reaction oIf every ion in a complete ionic equation is a spectator no reaction occursNet Ionic Equation An ionic equation where the spectator ions are omitted and includes only the ions and molecules directly involved in the reactionoThe following procedure is used for writing net ionic equationsWrite a balanced molecular equation for the reactionRewrite the equation to show the ions that form in solution when each soluble strong electrolyte dissociates into its ionsOnly strong electrolytes dissolved in aqueous solution are written in ionic formIdentify and cancel spectator ionsAcids Substances that ionize in aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions HaqBases Substances that accept react with H ions and produce hydroxide ions OH when they dissolve in waterNeutralization Reaction When a solution of an acid and a solution of a base are mixed and the products of the reaction have none of the characteristic properties of either the acidic solution or the basic solutionoIn general a neutralization reaction between an acid and a metal hydroxide produces water and a saltSalt Any ionic compound whose cation comes from a base and whose anion comes from an acidConcentration The amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or quantity of solutionoThe greater the amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent the more concentrated the resulting solutionMolarity M Expresses the concentration of a solution as the number of moles of solute in a liter of solution solnoMolaritymoles solute volume of solution in liters Moles soluteM X VDilution Creating solutions of lower concentrations by adding wateroMoles solute before dilutionMoles solute after dilutionM X VM X VconcconcdildilElectrolytesBe able to identify strong weak and nonelectrolytes
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