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Chapter 4

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1201
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Electrolytes httphoganchemlsuedumatterchap26animate3an26036mov Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes In solid NaCl the ions in the lattice are held in place by strong ionic bonds This means the ions cannot move about in an electric field Therefore solid NaCl does not conduct electricity When NaCl is added to water the salt dissociates into Naaq and Claq In the presence of an electric field the solution can conduct electricity Strong electrolytes exist in solution entirely or almost entirely as ions Nonelectrolytes eg sugar do not conduct electricity at all ie there are no ions in solution Strong and Weak Electrolytes httphoganchemlsuedumatterchap27demosdm27005mov Strong and Weak Electrolytes Water has a low conductivity so the bulb does not burn in pure water Hydrogen chloride is soluble in water In water HCl ionizes into H and Cl Since HCl is a strong electrolyte in water there are no HCl molecules only H and Cl ions When the HClg is bubbled through the solution the bulb glows brightly because of the presence of the ions When acetic acid replaces the HCl solution the bulb glows less brightly Acetic acid exists as a mixture of acetic acid molecules and H and acetate ions in solution Because acetic acid is a mixture of ions and parent molecules in solution acetic acid is a weak electrolyte Therefore the acetic acid solution does not cause the bulb to glow brightly Dissolution of an Ionic Compound Fig 43 pg 124Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution Ionic Compounds in Water When an ionic compound dissolves in water the ions dissociate This means that in solution the solid no longer exists as a well ordered arrangement of ions in contact with each other Instead each ion is surrounded by water molecules The positive ions have the oxygen atoms of water pointing towards the ion negative ions have the hydrogen atoms of water pointing towards the ion The transport of ions through the solution causes electric current to flow through the solution When a molecular compound dissolves in water eg CHOH there are no ions formed 3Therefore there is nothing in the solution to transport electric charge and the solution does not conduct electricity Dissolution of NaCl httphoganchemlsuedumatterchap26animate1an26004mov Dissolution of NaCl When an ionic solid is placed in water the ions dissociate If the attractions between the ions and water molecules overcome the ionic attractions in the lattice the salt is soluble Cations are attracted to the O atoms in water through lone pairs Anions are attracted to the H atoms in water In solution the ions are separated Potassium Iodide and Lead Nitrate Fig 44 pg 126
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