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Chapter 10

12 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1201
Professor
All

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Atmospheric Pressure Fig 101 pg 401 The Characteristics of Gases There are three phases for all substances solid liquid and gases Gases are highly compressible and occupy the full volume of their containers When a gas is subjected to pressure its volume decreases Gases always form homogeneous mixtures with other gases Gases only occupy about 01of the volume of their containers Pressure Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer Pressure is the force acting on an object per unit area Gravity exerts a force on the earths atmosphere 25A column of air 1 m in cross section exerts a force of 10 N 2The pressure of a 1 m column of air is 100 kPa 22SI Units 1 N1 kgms 1 Pa1 Nm Torricelli Barometer Fig 102 pg 402Pressure Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer If a tube is inserted into a container of mercury open to the atmosphere the mercury will rise 760 mm up the tube Standard atmospheric pressure is the pressure required to support 760 mm of Hg in a column 5Units 1 atm760 mm Hg760 torr101325 x 10 Pa101325 kPa OpenEnd Manometer Fig 103 pg 403Pressure Pressures of Enclosed Gases and Manometers The pressure of gases not open to the atmosphere are measured in manometers A manometer consists of a bulb of gas attached to a Utube containing Hg If the Utube is closed then the pressure of the gas is the difference in height of the liquid usually Hg If the Utube is open to the atmosphere a correction term needs to be added 1If PP then PPP gasatmgash2atm2If PP then PPP gasatmgasatmh2Boyles Law Fig 106 pg 405Gas Laws The PressureVolume Relationship Boyles Law Mercury is added to Utube with both ends open to atmosphere since both ends now experience same pressure mercury level is equal in both columns Now lefthand column is sealed at the top giving rise to picture shown in a Gas trapped in lefthand column above mercury is at atmospheric pressure Next additional mercury is added to righthand column until gas volume in lefthand column drops to half original value Since volume has dropped in halp pressure must be doubled PVconst to about 2 atm Gas pressure in lefthand column approx 2 atm must equal atmospheric pressure pushing down on righthand column plus pressure from excess mercury height in righthand column Since atmosphere pushes down on righthand column with about 1 atm of pressure excess mercury must exert remainder of pressure ie about 1 atm Therefore 760 mm of excess mercury column height corresponds to exerts 1 atm of pressure
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