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Study Guide

CLST 2090- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 35 pages long!)


Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 2090
Professor
R.Warga
Study Guide
Final

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LSU
CLST 2090
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Exam 1
1/15
Introduction to Myth:
Mythos Greek word for story (not necessarily true or false)
Mythology the study of myths
Primitive people needed to make stories/myths in an effort to understand what was going on in their
world. Humans are the only beings with a need to understand things; a dog doest thik h e??
Primitive people, when scared, hurt, or depressed, created myths to explain their pain or discomfort.
All cultures make myths in their early development.
Around 1200 B.C., ancient Greeks began to take written history and to make rational and logical stories.
Myth-making came to an end once this began.
Myths illustate the tuth, uh as Jesus did i his paales. He did ot gie a eat poit, ut told a
story that showed what he meant. Myths may not tell the literal truth, but they illustrate human nature
and human experience.
Theories:
Max Müller concluded that all ancient myths are about nature and natural phenomenon.
Carl Jung noted that same kinds of myths turn up in all different cultures, such as each culture having
their own version of the Great Flood. He developed his theory of the Collective Unconscious that all
humans are born with these same ideas in their brains, lying deep and unconscious. He said that myths
explore these deep ideas of the collective unconscious.
Claude Levi-Strauss research on human brain, that different sides were responsible for different
futios. Noted that the od is ia  as, eas, legs… ad sas that e think in pairs with
ideas (on & off, right & wrong, good & evil, yes & no). They are pairs of opposites in conflict with each
other. Levi-“tauss sas that as etie epeiee is ased o oflit, ad that ths peset the
conflicts, then resolve them within the story.
The 20th century was in ways spent examining and interpreting the ideas of the 19th century. Despite
technological strides, it has been said that no ideas came from the 20th century. For example, 20th
century scholars spent their lives working on the 19th century ideas of Darwin, Marx and Freud.
Sigmund Freud all human nature is driven by sex. Freud started psychotherapy. He turned his focus
to myths and concluded that all myths are about sex and are a way of revealing sexual fears and desires
without having to confront them every day.
Characters: Zeus, Semele, Hera
Zeus lord and king of the gods. Constantly making love to females of all kinds. In this story, Zeus is
making love to Semele. But Zeus is married to his sister, Hera, who always finds out about his infidelities.
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Hera disguises herself as an old human woman and visits Semele, who confesses that not only is she
making time with Zeus, but that he loves he oe tha his o ife! Hea sas that o, he doest,
because with his own wife, he appears to her as he really is as an almighty god. Usually, Zeus appears
as a human tall, strong, distinguished, a little bit of gray. So the next time Zeus comes around, Semele
asks him to appear as he really is. Zeus denies her, saying that she doest at to see that. So she
bitches and moans until he gives in, makes love to her, and appears to her as the god that he is at
which point she is immediately destroyed by a bolt of lightning.
1/20
That story can be analyzed by the four theories listed above. Is any single theory correct? Are none of
them correct?
Mülles Natue Theo because primitive people are in constant contact and conflict with
nature. Zeus is the ultimate god, even over the god of thunder, and they find thunder
fighteig. Lightig is )eus eapo, ad epeieig a lightig olt is the losest that they
could get to Zeus. So to them, a lightning bolt IS Zeus. Getting struck by lightning is getting hit by
)eus. Thats hee atue oes i. Zeus is frequently depicted with a lightning bolt.
Jugs Colletie Uosious two of his ideas Anima and Animus. Anima is the male idea of
the ideal woman, the universal woman, who makes men crazy and keeps them off balance by
nagging and manipulating. Animus is the idea that all women have of men violent, destructive,
aggressive, rapists. So myths provide an expression for these ideas, which lie deep in the
unconscious. Both appear in this Zeus story she nags him like crazy and he destroys her.
Levi-Strauss humans are obsessed with conflict and resolution. Each of the three characters in
this story are in conflict with every other conflict. But as soon as you get rid of Semele, all
conflicts are resolved.
Freud its all aout se; Castration Anxiety - a o has oe, a gil doest. The boy thinks she
must have cut hers off and woies that shell ut his off. Penis Envy the girl looks, he has
soethig she doest, she kos shes ee had oe, ad she ats oe. I this th,
Semele insists to see Zeus as he eall is…o aked. “hes obsessed about it (penis envy). But
when he stands there naked, he has to kill her (castration anxiety).
Creation
Know that myths conflict and contradict each other, and the Greeks did not have them in a logical order.
One does, through, give a story of creation, which we compare to Genesis from the Bible.
Genesis God is already in existence at the beginning of Genesis, then he creates the universe; the
creation order matches the evolutionary order. The climax of the story is when god creates the first
man. But then, man complains that he needs a companion, so woman is created.
Greek starts with chaos, hih i Geek eas eptiess o othig. “o ou stat ith othig.
Then five beings come into existence:
Ge (pro. ga - the earth (feminine; a od that eds i e i Geek is feiie
Tartarus dark terrible prison located beneath the earth
Eros passionate love
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