Phonetics Test 2 Study Guide.docx

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Communication Disorders
COMD 4150
Michelle Gibson

Phonetics Test 2 Study Guide 25 transcriptions 25 questions-5 are spectrograms 1. Consonant- a phoneme produced with a constriction in the vocal tract; usually found at the beginning and end of a syllable; generally shorter in duration and having higher frequency spectra than vowels. They are 24 consonant phonemes in English. Consonants are produced by vocal tract constrictions that modify the breath stream coming from the larynx. They generally involve 2 articulators to modify the airflow. The tongue, the primary articulator in production of consonants, makes contact with other articulators to form most of the English consonants. 2. Obstruent- a class of sounds (with a noise source) including the stops, fricatives, and affricates; also referred to as a non-resonant consonant; produced with a constriction in the oral cavity that results in turbulence in the airstream coming from the larynx. 3. Sonorant- a class of sounds produced with resonance throughout the entire vocal tract, e.g. the nasals, glides, and liquids, they are produced with little constriction in the vocal tract and are therefore produced without much turbulence in the airstream coming from the larynx. 4. Pre-vocalic- consonants that occur before a vowel in any syllable. For these exercises transcribe the word first! a. Ex. Tee, hoe, cow, hotdog 5. Post-vocalic- consonants that occur after a vowel. a. Ex, eat, ouch, oz 6. Inter-vocalic-consonants that are located between two vowels. a. Easy, anew, oily, hasten 7. Manner- refers to the way in which the airstream is modified as it passes the vocal tract. 8. Place- Where in the vocal tract is the constriction located during the production of a particular consonant (which speech organs are active in the production of that consonant). 9. Voicing- refers to whether the vocal tract folds are vibrating during the production of a particular consonant. */w/ = Lower-Case w: voiced, labiovelar glide */tʃ/ = /t/ and /ʃ/ together: voiceless, palatal affricate */ʤ/ = /d/ and /ʒ/ together: voiced, palatal affricate 10. Stop (plosive)- a consonant characterized by: (1) a complete obstruction of the ongoing airstream by the articulators, (2) a build-up of intraoral air pressure, and (3) a release. (/p/,/b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/). Stops may 1 or 2 sound sources depending if they are voice or voiceless. The primary sound source for voiceless plosives is the point of constriction in the vocal tract, formed by the articulators. (Considered noise). Voiced phonemes have the noise source produced at the constriction of in the vocal tract, and the vocal tone produced by the vibrating vocal folds. a. Flaps /ɾ/-/t/ and /d/ often become flaps /ɾ/ when they are intervocalic and after a stressed syllable (e.g., better, cheddar). b. Glottal stop /ʔ/Usually syllable final. Often when /t/ or /nt/ is followed by /n/ (Ex- Kitten, mountain, Dayton). The tongue tip remains in place for the /t/ and the /n/, so the release is made at the vocal folds. Button (b˄ʔn), Fatten (fæʔn) Latin (læʔn). c. Stop gap- silent period; vocal tract closed. The stop gap precedes the release of a stop. d. Stop release-narrow spike of energy (time) but it is spread over wide frequency. e. Voice Bar- low frequency noise from phonation during voiced stops. f. Aspiration- the production of a frictional noise following the release of a voiceless stop consonant. (/p/, /t/,/k/)- p i versus bi. /p/ /t/ /k/ typically are aspirated when beginning a word, e.g., pea, tea, key. /p/ /t/ /k/ typically are aspirated when beginning a stressed syllable, e.g., appease, attend, accord. /b/ /d/ /g/ typically are not aspirated in any phonetic context. /p/ /t/ /k/ typically are not aspirated at the end of a word unless the stop release. g. Unreleased-When two plosives are produced next to each other, for example *kt+ in the word ‘respect,’ the first plosive typically is not released. In the final 7 position of words, stops in English often are not released, e.g., hat . h. Released but not aspirated: p/ /t/ /k/ typically are not aspirated when part of a consonant cluster, even if they begin a word, e.g., please, tree, creed. i. Voice Onset Time (VOT): The difference in time between the release of a plosive and the onset (start) of voicing. Imagine a recording of the words “fun times” begins at 0 (zero) milliseconds (ms). The onset of the stop release in /t/ begins at 415ms. The voicing for the vowel in ‘times’ begins at 480ms. So, the time it takes from the release to the onset of voicing is the time from 415ms to 480ms (65ms). If the voicing begins BEFORE the stop release, it is considered a negative VOT. Imagine a recording of “fun dimes.” The stop release in /d/ begins at 415ms, but the voicing begins BEFORE the stop release at 365ms. This results in a negative voice onset of -50ms (the time between 365ms and 415ms). If the stop release and the voicing begin at exactly the same time, it would be a VOT of zero. j. Intraoral pressure- (air pressure within the oral cavity) increases due to the fact that the impeded airstream cannot escape the oral cavity. Intraoral pressure is greater for voiceless stops, thus they are considered louder than voiced stops. k.*** When comparing a spectrogram of fricatives know that the longer the cavity the smaller the frequency of
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