CMST FINAL Study Guide (97% in the course

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Communication Studies
CMST 2061
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CMST 2061Final Exam Study GuideChapter 8 Difference between LeaderManagerLeadership involves looking for the next development or opportunity for growth and change that might lead to increased organizational growth profitability and market share Leaders look toward tomorrow to create the new status quo That is they engage in foresight more than presentsight The managers focus is on the here and now or what is whereas the leaders focus is on tomorrow and what can beManagers generally do the telling eg This is the way we want you to do the job whereas leaders generally do theselling eg If we were to change this process how would you do things differently The managers primary responsibility is to organize labor whereas the leaders primary responsibility is to inspire labor The reaction to information also highlights important differences between leaders and managers Managers tend to be reactive to new information in an effort to maintain the status quo whereas leaders tend to be proactive in that they use the untested and uncertain nature of new information as an opportunity for growth The same is true with regard to vision The manager will see the future through the prism of the past and present whereas the leader will see the present through the future A final important difference between managers and leaders is the power that they use to get things done Managers tend to use legitimate power or power that is officially granted to them by the organization as opposed to leaders who use referent power or the ability to get followers to act because the followers like the leader and believe in his or her visionLeadership styles To measure effective leadership we must consider the goal of the leader and organization Leaders of a forprofit company eg Walmart and a notforprofit eg American Heart Association are subject to different measures of success Specifically a forprofit company one gauges success by quarterly revenue whereas a notfor profit organization measures success by the amount of donations in dollars receivedTrait The trait leadership perspective holds that people either possess the attributes of a leader or they do not This type of effort is known as the great man theory of leadership Ralph Stodgill believed that leadership qualities are part of a persons personality There are several traits associated with leadership First leaders possess the trait of narcissism which is the belief that they as opposed to someone else are qualified to lead This trait assumes a higher level of selfconfidence and selfefficacy than those levels found in followers Second the trait of charisma reflects the leaders ability to display a high degree of communication competence the ability to inspire confidence the ability to inspire subordinates as well as the ability to convince subordinates to buy into the leaders vision It is important to remember that leaders possess charisma regardless of whether their intent is for good or evil Interpretation of events also distinguishes effective leaders from ineffective leaders Locus of control is a trait that concerns how people attribute causes to outcomes in life Carl Anderson and Craig Schneier found that people who exhibit an internal locus of control ie see outcomes as being a function of their own behavior are more likely to be leaders than people who exhibit an external locus of control ie see outcomes as being a function of luck chance fate other people etc Internally oriented people also reported having greater amounts of previous leadership experience and emerge as group leaders more frequently than people who report being externally oriented There has been much debate about whether men or women are better leaders Because men and women do display differences in their leadership styles both display effective and ineffective leadership behaviors Women in organizations tend to be more nurturing and socially sensitive whereas men tend to be more assertive and use more overt power More recently researchers have found that the most effective leaders display a genderneutral style or an androgynous style which is a combination of both masculine and feminine behaviors The trait perspective assumes that leaders simply move from situation to situation giving little value to the context or the situation but another perspective holds that both the situation and the context determine which qualities and behaviors are considered leader like Therefore leadership is believed to be situationally bound Situational The situational leadership perspective assumes that there is no such thing as a born leader rather people act as leaders depending on the situation Consider the following list of people and whether they would be considered leaders without the particular situations in which they were involved Rosa Parks without segregation Abraham Lincoln without the Civil War Winston Churchill without the Battle of Britain Martin Luther King Jr without the civil rights struggles of the 1960s Rudy Giuliani without the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Mother Teresa without Third World poverty and oppressionThe situational leadership theory assumes that any leadership style should be based on both the employees psychological maturity ie degree of self efficacy and willingness to accept responsibility and job maturity ie degree of skills and knowledge of the task As employees maturity increases the most appropriate leadership style is more relationally focused than task focused Specifically there is a hierarchy of maturity levels and each level requires a degree of both task and relational leadership stylesAt the most basic maturity level a leader would use the tell style which is high in task focus and low in relationship focus The tell style is advocated for employees who have low selfefficacy and are unmotivated Therefore the leader must simply instruct or train employees in skills used in accomplishing the task Second on the continuum is the sell style which assumes that employees have some maturity and are resistant to being told what to do yet are not fully motivated to show initiative Therefore the leader should be high in both task and employee focus This type of leadership style includes explaining decisions and advising employees in an effort to motivate them for task accomplishment At the third level is the participative style This style assumes that employees have high levels of job maturity and low levels of psychological maturity Therefore a low task focus and high relational focus style is required because employees are capable of performing the task but are unwilling or resistant to perform the task The final approach is the delegating style which reflects high levels of employee psychological and job maturity With these employees a low task focus and a low employee focus is required In this case employees are capable of performing the task and are motivated to do so Therefore the leader should simply allow employees to perform Another situational leadership theory is Fielders contingency theory which holds that the degree of success of any leader is contingent on the situational demands ie whether the leader should have a task or employee focus and the amount of influence and control the leader has in the given the situation Basically in situations that are in the extreme very successful or very unsuccessful outcomes with no middle option you would want a taskoriented leader When the situation is moderate in gravity moderately successful or moderately unsuccessful an employeefocused leader would be more effectiveFielder believed that you cannot change the internal qualities of leaders and that we should find situations that match our specific style The match of the persons strengths to the specific situation results in effective leadership but does not guarantee that the person will be successful in all situations because effective leadership is something that is only part of a leaders personalityThere is no true leadership style Therefore it is difficult to identify a leader before a situation occurs It remains intuitively appealing in its assumptions because it affords everyone the chance of being a leader given the right circumstancesExchange Looks at the quality of the relationship between the leader and subordinates in the organization to determine leadership effectivenessLeadermember exchange theory LMX theory assumes that leaders behave differently to individual members of the organization based on the interpersonal nature of each relationship That is leaders develop either highquality links or lowquality links with subordinates A highquality link is characterized by high trust respect and an overall positive tone whereas a lowquality link is characterized by mistrust lack of respect and an overall negative tone Subordinates with highquality links to the leader are called ingroup members as opposed to subordinates with low quality links to the leader who are called outgroup members Ingroup members are promoted more quickly and are more team oriented than outgroup members Another exchangebased leadership approach is transformational leadership Our culture values equal rights and justice but it also values competition and commitment Transformational leadership focuses on empowering individual workers and helping the organization adapt to changes in both internal and external environments The basic premises of transformational leadership are as follows 1 the leader is an agent of change 2 the leader emphasizes the selfactualization of subordinates and 3 leaders pursue the goals of the organization as well as satisfy the higher level needs of followers including opportunities for growth and selffulfillment Tichy and Devanna highlighted seven characteristics that separate transformational leaders from other types of leadersTransformational leadership involves constant change and adaptation Given that society and organizational life are constantly changing effective leaders must adapt appropriately to those changes The only thing constant according to the transformational approach is the seven leadership characteristics describedorgs as leadersHave you ever considered an organization as a whole when discussing leadership Peters and Waterman developed a set of seven interrelated concepts known as the McKinsey 7S Framework which is based on structure strategy systems style skills staff and shared values Peters and Waterman delineated eight attributes common to all 43 excellent companies studiedBias for action These companies exhibit a lets try it and see what happens attitude This shows a willingness to experiment with innovative ideas to see if there is any benefit to the companyClose to the customer These companies view customers as the sole reason they exist and constantly remind employees of this fact Further the customer is considered an invaluable resource for innovation and changeAutonomy and entrepreneurship Excellent companies support and encourage risk taking internal competition as well as a high number of innovations They encourage innovations because the greater the number of total innovations given that some will fail the greater the number of successful innovationsProductivity through people Although these companies are totally performance centered they see productivity not as a result of organizational control but as something born of the organizations great expectations for each employee The
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