ENVS 1126 EXAM2 Outline1 (Got A+ on the test)

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Environmental Sciences
ENVS 1126
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Water a vital resourceoEarth is flooded with waterCovering 75 of the Earths surfaceo975 of all water is salt water oceans seasFresh water contains01 1000 ppm salto67 of fresh water is bound up in ice caps and glaciersOnly 077 of all water is in lakes wetlands rivers groundwater biota soil and the atmosphereFreshwater is a renewable resourceoStreams rivers ponds lakes swamps estuaries groundwater bays oceans and atmosphere contain wateroWater is used for drinking industries irrigation energy transportation recreation waste processing habitatsoHumans have constructed huge infrastructures to control waterHow does a refractometer workoA mediums index of refraction IORthe speed of light in a vacuum divided by the speed of light in that mediumoThe IOR of a liquid depends on the density of the liquidoThe greater the relative IOR the more light bendsoThe greater the relative IOR the more light bends Snells LawMore hightech YSIoYSI Yellow Springs InstrumentsWater in developed and developing nationsoDeveloped countries benefit from controlling waterFuture challengesoIncreasing population will challenge water management infrastructureoThere are two ways to consider water issuesQuantityQualityHydrologic cycleoHydrologic water cycle the cycling of water through the EarthEvaporation and transpiration water rises to the atmosphere and Condensationprecipitation water returns to the land and oceansoEvaporationoTransportationoCondensation oPrecipitationThe Hydrologic CycleEvaporationoHydrogen bonding holds water molecules HO together2oEvaporation as water molecules absorb energy from the Sun kinetic energy allows molecules to enter the atmosphereoWater vapor water molecules in the gaseous stateWater vapor is a greenhouse gasoHumidity amount of water vapor in the airoRelative humidity the amount of water vapor as a percent of what the air can hold at a particular temperatureCondensation
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