EXST 2201 Introduction To Statistical Analysis Final Review

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Louisiana State University
Experimental Statistics
EXST 2201

1208 Final Review Theory Know the difference between a theory and a hypothesisTheoryproven by scientific evidence verified hypothesis Hypothesispredict what will happen under certain conditions educated guess Know the steps of the scientific method1 Observation 2 Generalization or Model 3 Prediction or Hypothesis 4 Test Be able to formulate a null and alternative hypothesisNull hypothesisno effecto Ex increasing the enzyme concentration will not have an effect on the rate of the reaction o Rejected when treatments are significantly different from one anotherAlternative hypothesishas an effect say increase or decrease etc o Ex increasing the enzyme concentration will have an effect on the rate of the reaction go faster slower etc Know the chemicalsenzymes from the enzyme labCatecholsubstrateCatecholaseenzyme o Increases the rate of oxidation of catecholo Potato enzymeBenzoquinoneproductKnow the different factors manipulated during the enzyme experiment ie temperature pH enzyme concentration etcEnzyme concentrationSubstrate concentrationStructure of the substratepHTemperatureSource of enzyme How can we measure the rate of a chemical reactionABCReactants enzyme and substrateproductMeasure amount of product produced or lost What is a standard curveThe slope of a standard curve is equal to the reaction rateSee last page OsmosisOsmosis is the net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane o More water molecules are moving across the membrane in one direction than the other o Caused by the differences in the concentration of water across the membrane o Force causing the net movement is a change in the free energyo Lower osmotic concentrationhigher osmotic concentration Know the difference between hypotonic hypertonic and isotonicHypertonichas more solute o Water moves into the cell causing it to take up water swell and burstIsotonicequal amounts of solute o Cell is normalHypotonichas less solute o Water moves out of the cell causing it to lose water and shrivelHemolysisWhen red blood cells are placed in a hypotonic solution and rapidly swell and burstThe amount of time that it takes for hemolysis to occur is directly related to the rate of osmosis across the cell membrane o Hemolysis can be used as a index of the rate of osmosisAs hemolysis occurs the RBC membrane ruptures and releases hemoglobin causing the solution to clear Factors that allow molecules to cross the cell membraneSize of molecule o Smaller molecules pass more easily through the membrane o Larger molecules need assistanceCharge o Charged atoms or molecules cannot cross membranes unless assisted by a membrane protein facilitated transport or active transport
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