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Exam 2 Notes

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GEOG 1001
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CHAPTER 4LATIN AMERICAI IntroductionA Profile of realm1 17 nations2 rich in natural resources3 worlds largest tropical forest river and longest mountain chain 4 imprint of colonizers esp SpanishPortuguese but also British Dutch and French5 indigenousAfricandescended cultures strong in places6 megaurbanization a recent trendII Environmental Geography Neotropical DiversityA Points1 Neotropicsone of the worlds main biogeographical realms2 tropics a between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn 235 degrees NSb complex ecosystems1 great diversity of lifeforms2 easily disrupted3 extratropics N Mexico and much of Southern ConeB Environmental issues1 Pointsa relatively low populations have limited worse conditionsb new environmental movements offer hopec deforestation remains major problem2 Valley of Mexicoamajor population center1 since at least AD 13002 today20 millionor more in Mexico City metro areabenvironmental problems1 air pollution2 water qualitya most 70 comes from aquifers3 subsidencea land sinkingMexico City built on lake beds4corruption and ossified government prevents solutionsa populist mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador mobilized poormarginalize residents against pollution3 Deforestationa Problem throughout realm1 Amazonian rainforestlargest area under threatb other areas1 Atlantic coastal forestBrazil2 Central American rain forests3 Mexican coniferous pine forests 4 Southern Cone temperature rainforestsc causes1 cattle ranchinga grassification2 logging1a foreign commercial b local3 agriculturea African oil palmb soy beans4 settlementa pioneer populations in tropical lowlands4 Degradation of Farmlandsa hybrid crops eroding genetic diversityb pollution and hazards from chemicalsc soil erosiond urban sprawl converting farm lands5 Urban environmental challengesa air pollutionb water pollutionc water scarcity1 water for sale d squatter settlements1 landslides2 violencee Curitibamodel city in Brazilian South1 open space used to combat former flooding2 strong public transport3 effective recycling program G Western mountains and Eastern shields1 In L America best settlement farming sites often in highlandsa Mexico Cityb Andean cities2 The Andesa 5000 miles longb relatively young mountainsc 30 peaks over 20000 ftd Altiplanovast plateau region on PeruBolivia3 Uplands of MexicoCentral Americaa regions of population concentrationb rich farmlands in places due to volcanic soilsc concentrations of mineral resources4 The Shieldsa 3 areas1 Guiana covered in Chap 52 Brazilian3 Patagonianb ancient crystalline rock regions1 Brazilian shield a natural resourcesespecially mineralb favorable zones for settlement2 Patagoniaa sparsely settledH River basins and lowlands1 main rivers basinsystemsplainslowlandsa rivers1 Amazon2 Plata2
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