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CH 2 Outlines: WITH NOTES (Got A+ on the test)

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GEOG 1001
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Chapter 2 The Changing Global EnvironmentI GeologyHuman Settlement A Geology shapes the fundamental form of Earths surface by giving a distinctive character to world landscapes through the physical fabric of mountains hills valleys and plains B Plate tectonics a geophysical theory that postulates that Earth is made up of a large number of geological plates that move slowly across its surface13 major zonesaCorebMantlecouter crust2Cooling core as the molten material reaches Earths surface it cools and becomes denser causing the material to sink back into the mantle3Tectonic plate large blocks of rock that move slowly over the underlying semi molten material in different directions across Earths surface4Convergent plate boundary the two plates are converging or being forced together by convection cells deep within Earth5Subduction zone collision zones where one tectonic plate dives below another characterized by deep trenches where the ocean floor has been pulled downward by tectonic movement exist off the western coast of South America and also near the Philippines6Divergent plate boundary tectonic plates move in opposite directions as plates diverge magma often flows from Earths interior creating mountain ranges with active volcanoes can also form deep depressions or rift valleys 7Pangaea Geologic evidence suggests that some 250 million years ago all the worlds plates were tightly consolidated into a supercontinent centered on presentday Africa through time this large area called Pangaea was broken up as convection cells moved the tectonic plates apartC Geologic Hazards Earthquakes and Volcanoes1Predicting earthquakes is nearly impossible because of this many cities prone to earthquakes advise stronger buildings etc2Volcanic eruptions are also found along most tectonic plate boundaries and can cause major destruction In some cases eruptions can be predicted days in advance which usually provides enough time for evacuation Volcanoes can also provide some benefits to people produce energy to heat peoples homes volcanic ash can enrich soil fertility for food crops and local economies can benefit from tourists attracted by scenic volcanoes1
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