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GEOG 1001
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Geography10011InfoforTest2September30Europe Chapter 8 September 16 2010European Physical Geography Europe is smaller than North America but has a larger population than North America It isnt a continent Its a whole group of different peninsulas that are very connected to water When you are near a large body of water such as an ocean the climate is milder Everything in Europe is very damp and mildMore than half a billion people reside in this region living in over 40 different countries that range in size of small and large spaces Commonly a days journey finds one speaking two to three different languages possibly changing money and sampling regional food and drink Europe is highly urbanized and for the most part affluent particularly in the western portion Main climate types of Europe pg 336Three principal climates characterize Europe Along the Atlantic coast a moderate and moist maritime climate dominates modified by oceanic influences Father inland continental climates prevail with hotter summers and colder winters Finally dryer summers in the Mediterranean climates are found in southern Europe from Spain to Greece o1 Marine west coast climate humid summers and not a lot of snow moderate climate with cool summers and mild winters that is heavily influenced by maritime conditions Such climates are usually found on the west coasts of continents o 2 Continental Climate climate regions in continental interiors removed from moderating oceanic influences that are characterized by hot summers and cold winters At least one moth averages below freezing o 3 Mediterranean Climate cool moist winters warm hot summers oPolar freezing towards polesoHighland Climate Swiss AlpsoMid Latitude Continental climate dryer and colder in winterGeographical Regions Landscapes and Landforms pg 334o1 Lowlands Form an arc from southern France to the northeast plains of Poland 2 Alpine Mountains Go down through Norway and Sweden UK It forms the topographical spine of Europe They have historically divided the cultural between the Mediterranean lands o3 Central Uplands Positioned between the Alps and the Lowlands They contain the raw materials for Europes industrial areas and have provided coal and iron for necessary industry mineral resources have come from the eastern reaches too o4 Western Highlands includes Mountains in Spain portions of British Isle and Scandinavia They define the western edge of the European subcontinent They are Europes oldest mountains formed about 300 million years ago The U shaped valleys form a spectacular coastline in Norway called fords which are flooded inlets similar to the coastlines of Africa and New Zealand Fjord flooded glacially carved valleys in Europe found along Norways western coast Shield Landscape Barren mostly flat lands of southern Scandinavia that were heavily eroded by Pleistocene ice sheets N many places this landscape is characterized by large expanses of bedrock with little or no soil that resulted from glacial erosionpg 336European Population is not evenly distributed most people live in the marine west coast climate and Mediterranean climate for vegetation and growth Agriculture is proximate toooZero growth rate some highly industrialized and Eastern European countries below replacement levelsoOnly growth in most countries a result of inimmigration many migrants from former colonies post colonialismoMost immigrants come from former coloniesoFamilies are restricted on how many children they are allowed to birthoImmigration today is linked to historical colonial ties and possessionEuropean CulturesoColonialism exploitation of the resources and labor of another country through force refers to the formal establishment of rule over a foreign populationEurope is the cradle of modern industrialism Two fundamentals were associated with this transformationo1 First machines replaced human labor in many manufacturing processes o2 Second inanimate energy sources such as water steam electricity and petroleum powered new machines However we do call this period the Industrial Revolution it took more than a century for these changes to intercede and transform through rapid change This happened first in England in 17301850 then in other parts of EuropeHow Europe achieved dominationo1Force coerciono2Economic Control to Insure DependencyColonies were prohibited from making and producing goods that was made in the mother country in abundance They were forced to be independent Colonies could only trade with the mother country o3 Legitimizing Colonial Rule Had to become accepted by the people in the colonies In order for it to be stable it had to be legitimate and win the support for the local indigenous population Coopted people buy into by giving them things such as grants jobs material advantages and land Offered education in western style school o4 Introducing European Civilization Political and economicstructures Cultural changes
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