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Geography Notes Chapters 6 7 9

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GEOG 2050
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GEOG 2050 test 3 notesTHIS WILL BE THE HARDEST EXAM OF THE ENTIRE COURSEMarch 12chapter 6 Air pressure mercury barometer aneroid barometer wind anemometer wind vane Beaufort wind scale isobars pressure gradient forceHow do we determine air movement1TAMBORAaVolcanic Eruption in 1815 in Indonesia influenced the whole EarthbVolcanic Explosively Index VEI scored a 7 on range of 18 8 being the largestc1816The year without a summertemperatures never rose above winter temperaturesdAgricultural crops failed and livestock diedthiWorst famine of the 19 centurytime period of potato famine in IrelandiiSunsets had bright vivid colors due to dues scattering in the atmosphere1Compared to sunsets after the Mt Pinatubo eruption in Hong Kong 1992same bright colors2ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATIONndthaMt Pinatubo erupts in June 19912 largest in 20 century with a VEI of 6bSatellites track where all of the ash and soot travelsit increases and almost encircles the whole Earth along the equator and then moves north and south toocCooled global temperatures for the next 2 yearsdEffects cover 42 of the globe in just 60 dayshow does this move around3AIR PRESSUREaMolecules in air create pressurebGas Laws PRpTiPPressure1Pressure is force over areaforcearea2Pressure is a scalar quantity magnitude no direction3Pressure is exerted on ALL surfacesiiTtemperatureiiiPdensitymassvolumeivRgas constantcAs you move down the atmosphere more molecules in less area more pressuredHow do we measure pressure4MERCURY BAROMETERSolderaAs air pressure changes mercury moves up and down inside the glass columnbAs pressure increases mercury from the dish climbs higherjust like sucking out of a straw5ANEROID BAROMETERneweraVolume in container changes as air pressure changesbAs it pushes down the arm moves back and forth on a scrolling rollcWe also have electronic waves now6AIR PRESSURE MEASUREMENTSaMillibars use primarily for this classmb or mbariForce per m2iiCommonly used in meteorologyweatherbPascals Pai1kPa10mbariiScientific usecAtmosphere atmiSI unitii1 atm101325 mbardmmHg or inches of Hgimbar X 002953inches of HgePSI pounds square inchfMeasured with barometersgRange 9801050 mbar typical for surface of EarthhAverage sealevel pressure slpi101325 mbarii2992 mmHgiii10132 kPaiChanges in pressure are least noticeable but are important in producing weather changes7AIR PRESSURE READINGSaLowest in US 882 mbariHurricane Wilma in 2005bHighest in US 1065 mbariBarrow Alaska Jan 1970cEarths recorded low 870 mbariTyphoon Tip Oct 1979dEarths record high 1084 mbariSiberia Dec 1968eNoticecold temperatures and interior continents seem to give HIGH pressuresfNoticeTropical cyclones and storms give LOW pressures8WIND figure 64aMovement of airbMeasure speediAnemometerlike a pinwheel 3cup is most common1Miles per hour mph2Kilometer per hour kmph3Meters per second mps4Knots nautical milehourcMeasure directioniWind vanesource of direction110 m 33 ft above surface9WIND DIRECTION figure 65aMeteorology iTalk about the direction the wind is coming FROM1Ex westerly winds come form the westiiDegrees from North1EX westerly wind in 270 degrees10BEAUFORT WIND SCALE WEEKLY ACTIVITY SLIDEaDeveloped in 1806 by Sir Francis Beaufort of EnglandbDeveloped for the tall ships that used sailsuniform way of describing windcDescribed wind from wave observations developed later for landdIn activitywe will look at pictures of the waves and discern wind speed using Beaufort Wind Scale11OCEANaPressure increases with depthi1 decibar dbar 1 meteriiDepth can be determined by pressurebCurrents similar to windiSpeediiDirectioniiiCurrent meters
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