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Chapter 4

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Course Code
GEOG 2050

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Chapter 4Atmosphere and surface energy balances1 Energy Essentials2 Energy Balance in the Troposphere3 Energy Balance at Earths SurfaceEnergy essentialsEnergy Pathways and Priciples Shortwave energy in from the SunLongwave energy out from EarthTransmissionPassage of shortwave or longwave energy through atmosphere or waterEnergy PathwaysDiffuse vs DirectDirect nothing getting in the way of the radiation Diffuse something interferes with the direct beam Clouds are the most common Figure 41Insolation inputAll radiation received at Earths surface direct and indirectScatteringChanging direction of lights movement without altering its wavelengthRefractionChange in speed and direction of lightFigure 42 diffuse radiationRepresents 7 of Earths reflectivityWhy is the sky blue Why are sunsetsrises redRayleigh scatteringrelates wavelength to the size of molecules or particles that cause scatteringGeneral rule The shorter the wavelength the greater the scatteringShorter wavelengths of visible light blues and violets scatter the mostWhen the sun is at low altitude rays travel further through atmosphere leaving only oranges and redsRefractionAs insolation enters atmosphere passes from empty space into atmospheric gas changes mediumCauses a change in speed and thus a change in direction bending actionrefractionRainbows visible light passes through raindrops and is refracted and reflected at precise anglesMirage light waves are refracted by layers or air at different temperaturesFigure 44Refraction adds about 8 minutes to our day
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