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Geog Final Review

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GEOG 2051
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GEOG 2051 Final ExamReview GuideSection 1 New MaterialCoastal Environments II Primary Coasts Those that have been formed by terrestrial processes Rias Deltas Fjords Secondary Coasts Have been modified by marine processes Erosional Features Those where the landscape is remnants of what is left behind when costal erosion has occurred oCliffs Eroded by wavesWavecut Platforms 1 Sea erodes cliff 2 Wave cuts notch cave weakening cliff 3 Cliff eventually collapses into wave cut platform Will keep extending but only to a limit Need uplift of land or sea level fault TerracesArches Occurs when wave erosions cut through a cave in a headlineStacks Isolated chunks that are the remaining headlinesDepositional Features Generally sedimentary created as a result of the deposition of a material by marine processesBeaches Dynamic dramatic changes during storms Fairweatherswell waves low steepness and long and tends to be an onshore movement of sand Return flow slower and moves less sediment Result beach becomes steeper and swash zone But that increases backwash which brings more sediment Eventually equilibrium which brings out as much as brings in Wide beach steep foreshore Stormwell Profile Changes Shorter higher steeper not movement is offshore direction Not deep Sand bar is built up parallel to shore Narrow beach flatter foreshore oSpits Result of longshore transport and sudden change in coastlineTombolos Similar to spits transported by longshore transport Perpindicular to shoreline Built behind an obstruction rock shipwreak whatever can cause the current to slow Barrier Islands Long linear ridges of sand 10m to 100 km long narrow few km Separated by narrow and shallow bodies of water EasternGulf Coast 3000m Formation Spit extension Mid Atlantic eventually breaks in half to form island Drown in place former shoreline position when shores were lower than they are today oRollover Sea level rises and the island rolls over like a tractor tread Washover Drowing in place when sea level rises over ridge connected to mainland trough between the ridge becomes filled with water Huge clump of sediment pushed over to the landward side of the barrier island oPeat Outcrop Related to rollover like a tractorBiological FeaturesCoral Reefs Exoskeletons built on top of older generation Distribution and Controls Temperatures warm Do best on eastern coasts Found in shallow water Need light and sea floor Dont like freshwater so not near deltas or suspended sediment Fringing Circles around the volcanic island then becomes separated by a lagoon when the island subsides oBarrieroAtoll Reefs surround upward water when islands are gone Human Impacts Impossible for a big storm not to effect human activities Erosional ProblemsSea Level Rise Sea level is rising and increasing 1 foot to 2 feet in a centuryHard Protection Building some sort of structure on shoreline reduce wave energy levels and alter sediment transport pathways oGroins Interrupt longshore current and cause sand to be deposited oBreakwaters Walls built out of rubble parallel to the beach oJetties Like a groin but located at the edges of an inlet Made of rubbleSoft Protection Beach nourishment is a maintenance approach not a solution Dune restoration Retreat Retreat developments from the coast Glacial and Periglacial EnvironmentsCryosphere Frozen World Includes areas covered by glaciers and ice caps in Artic Ocean and areas with permafrost Controlled by climate temperature but not strictly deep freeze all year just to keep it consistent year round Climate System Poles distance from the sun has no effect Earth is a globe the Earths surface varies depending on different angles Rays are parallel over all areas The same amount of energy is spread out over a larger area because of the curve Equator generally gets 25x more energy than the poles More surface area receiving isolation at the poles Global Energy Balance Refers to the positive budget at the surplus of energy at the equator and the
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