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Geog 2051 Test 2

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Louisiana State University
GEOG 2051

CH9WATERRESOURCESGlobal distribution of water 97 salt waterfound in the ocean oHas dissolved minerals in itoSalt water cant be used to do many things we need water for but we can distill the water to make it useful but is very expensive 3 of water is fresho22 in the form of ground waterdeep ground water generally not useful shallow ground water BR watero78 is on the surface cheapest most usable supply of water 995 is glacialice not available for use 1 is water in rivers lakes atmosphere streams We use 10001500 gallons of water per dayHydrologic CycleMovement of water from place to place around the earths surface Cycle components oChanges in State3 phases solid liquid gasWater is the only substance that exists on earths surface in all 3 statesWater is important to redistribute solar energy around the earth These changes are important in the climate as welloMovementMany different ways water movesVertical movements up and downAccomplished by precipitation snow rainWater gets lifted by the windHorizontal movements one place to another Surface runoff of water channel wide flow in rivers and streams the movement of ocean currents AdvectionHorizontal Movement of water vapor in atmosphereoStorage Reservoirs Places where water is restoredOceans atmosphere rivers lakes soil glacial ice living organisms Key characteristic Residence Time The average amount of time water spends in a given reservoir Atmosphere tends to be a few daysRivers tend to be a few weeksOceans 1000years Gives us an idea of how much water we can use in given reservoir or how long water will be clean oGlobal Budget BalanceDifference between inputs and outputs determine the budgetCan be imbalances in any individual exchange Ocean gives up more water than it gets through precipitationThis cannot persist forever and ocean will eventually dry upExcess units we lose through evaporation to atmosphere in now falling as precipitation to land surfaceThis precipitation gets run off or flowed back to the oceanThis balances out the original imbalanceNet result budget for any given reservoir balances over time through various exchanges GroundwaterWater that is not just up at the surface in the soil but deeper downAccounts for 10 of earths freshwater Groundwater bodies tend to be more fragile easier to contaminateAquiferobody of porous material that water can penetrate and flow through oSaturated zone Lower portion in aquifer where the porous spaces are filled with wateroZone of Aeration upper portion of aquifer above the water table where the porous spaces are filled with airoWater Table top upper most part of the saturated zoneAquicludeobody of rock that doesnt allow water to penetrate excludes water Recharge rate
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