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Geography 2051 NOTES

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Louisiana State University
GEOG 2051

Chapter1Geography the study of spatial distribution and spatial patterns of earths surface plants animals climates cities culture etcWhat Is Where Many reasons why Asked1 Curiosity people have interest in learning what other places are like 2 Economics where to find spices gold gems best trade and traveling3 Political Power Spain became rich and powerful shipping bulk loads of gold to America built armies etc trade and traveling 4 Military Power know there own land fight on own land to know and fight on your own land is good source of water etc knowing surroundings5 Cultural discovery and exploration ExpandModern Practicehigher educationGeography became formal discipline in the universitiesWhat Is Where through description Maps wordsGeographys trying to explain to understand whyShifts to question why Are things spaced where they are gold in California not Louisiana explanationexplains whySubdivisions1 Human Focus on people and what creates culture cities transportation networks and societies 2 Physical Focus on natural world landscapes oceans climates and weatherFour Spheres of Geography1 Lithosphere solid portions mountains beaches valleys continents2 Atmosphere gas around the world exchange of energy weather3 Hydrosphere water portions oceans rivers lakes water in atmosphere and Lithosphere4 Biosphere living world living organisms5 Common Themes In Geographic Research helps distinguish geographic work from other1 Location no such thing as absolute locationstarting point everything is located by another locationeverything is located with reference to something else2 Place characteristics and attributes that make location unique and different from other placesEx New Orleans3 Regionsan area that is eternally homogeneous same with respect to some characteristicex New Orleans RegionSouth characteristics climate history cultural 4 MovementNetworksConnectionsPathwaysthings move about the earth goods money air water energy cars follow particular paths5 Human Environment Interrelationshipspeople impact the environment deforestationenvironment effect people Gustav Katrina Tsunami Earthquake in HaitiMethods and Tools1 Scientific Methodsmethod for generating new knowledge a way to solve problemsquestions that no one has figured outfind ideas you can never prove something trueabout developing closer approximately about reality 2 Apriori Knowledge preexisting knowledge image of the real world life experiences What we have learnedpicked up forms image of world and how it works Subtotal of life experiencesGap in knowledge where Scientific Method comes in develops knowledge3 Theory refers to what generally believed to be correctSteps1Formulate KnowledgeProvisionalpossible explanation of something but needs to be verifiedIts an educational guess2 Testingdetermine if hypothesis is true collect data conduct experiments if disapprovedreject hypothesisgo back form a new hypothesis and start over if accepted fail to disapprove hypothesis now becomes part of knowledge and you found truthSystem TheoryApplied to people cities natural worldHelps to identify important characteristics of certain thingsThe basic idea of a system is the set of objects and attributes which are linked together by flows of energy and matter2 Basic TypesOpen System which energy and matter are free to leave ex All systems in natureClosed System energy and matter are not free to leaveTHE EARTH IS NOT A CLOSED SYSTEM
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