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Geog2051 Exam2 AllNotes

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Louisiana State University
GEOG 2051

Chemical WeatheringOxidationoRustingoIf a rock has metallic minerals in it and they are exposed to water a chemical reaction takes place called oxidationoOxygen binds to the Iron and caused iron oxide to be formedoMany rocks are porous and will absorb wateroFreezethaw breaks the rock down furtherHydrolysisoInvolves wateroAttacks minerals called silicates oWater molecules strip out elements from those minerals creating new compoundsoWhich again weakens the rockoEx feldspar a common mineral in granite is attacked by hydrolysis and breaks down into two other elements CarbonationoA specific type of solutionoCertain substances when dropped in water will dissolveoThis process is enhanced when the water is acidifiedoEx when rain is acidicGases like carbon dioxide can dissolve into the rain water and make it a weak acidicoRocks with carbon are very susceptible to this acidic wateroCalcium carbonate limestone is very susceptible oEx gargoyles in France used to have elegant detail now are worn awayoSince the industrial revolution the acid rain has grown stronger and carbonation happens even faster now this rain will sometimes have a PH of 4Pinnacle Karst caused by carbonationoKarst TopographyoPinnacle KarstKarst and spires Water runs through the cracks and faults and breaks off the rockoTower KarstRemnant stumps are left behind from the original bedrock material oSinkholesDepressions on the surface2 typesSolution sinkholesoResult from the dissolution of the bedrock from carbonationCollapse sinkholesoThe remaining material is too weak to support the structure and then collapse oDisappearing streamsStreams that flow along the surface and then disappearFlow into a collapse sinkhole into a subterranean cavern systemoKarst valleysA sequence of sinkholes that have merged and grown together looks like a river bedoAll Karsts are underlain by cavern and cavesErosionalcreates cavernsRock saturated with water carbonation takes place water carries off excess sediment when water level drops left with cavernDepositionDrip stones oStalactitesWater soaks down through bedrock the droplet hangs on the end of the limestone and when the water evaporates the limestone is leftoStalagmites If those same drops of water are falling on the floor they form stalagmitesG for groundStalactitesoSoda strawsoDrip curtain Slopes and Mass MovementsSlopeoFormal A curved or inclined surface that represents the boundary of a landformoInformal The side of a hillSteepness of the slopeoAngleMeasure the angle of the slope with respect to a horizontal surfaceoTangentTangentRiseRunTangent of the slope is the ratio of the rise vertical over the run horizontal how much we go up for every unit we go forward Given as a decimal numberTangent 55001oGradientDerived from the tangent 0110010 gradient Slopes as a systemoInputsMaterial from weathering Materials keep building up making the slope steeper and steeperoOutputsMass movement general term that covers the processes for materials to move downhill
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