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Exam 3 Study Guide

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GEOL 1001
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GEOL1001Exam 3 Study GuideEarthquakesDefinition of an earthquakenatural geologic process caused by the sudden and rapid movement of a large volume of rockElastic rebound theory earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of elastic energy stored in rock that has been deformed by differential stressesFault rupturecauses earthquakesFocusthe origin of an earthquakeEpicenterthe point at the surface directly above the focusAftershocksmaller tremors that follow a major earthquake and can happen over several monthsForeshockopposite of aftershock small tremors that come before a major earthquake Studying earthquakesseismologySeismographhas a weight freely suspended from a support that is securely attached to bedrock the inertia of the weight keeps it stationary as the earth movesP wavesprimary waves pushpull wavesS wavessecondary waves shake particles at right angles to the direction of travelSurface wavestravels along the outer part of earthLocating the epicenterfirst find PS interval of 3 places compare to distance on graph triangulate on mapMeasuring the size of an earthquakeRichter magnitudebased on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave PS or surface recorded on a seismogram Moment magnitudedetermines the strain energy released from the entire fault surface better for describing very large earthquakesMercalli intensity scalean intensity scale that measures using the amount of damage and its affect on pplDetermining fault mechanism
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