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Geology Final Exam Ch 1 17 Major Concepts Diagrams (got 96%)

43 Pages

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GEOL 1001

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Chapter 1 Geology Final Exam ReviewKey Terms and Concepts to Remember Terms to Remember Cosmology conscious thought that distinguishes humansstudies the structure and history of the universeGeocentric earth centered universeHeliocentric sun centered universeAsteroids chunks of rocks and metalComets once icy objects have long tails Terrestrial Planet small dense rocky Mercury Venus Earth and MarsJovian Planet large low density gas giant Jupiter Saturn Uranus and NeptunePlanet object that orbits a star is sphericalMoon large body locked in orbit around a planetStars immense balls of incandescent gas Light Year distance light travels in one year Doppler Effect change in frequency when a wave source moves Nucleosynthesis process of creating new atomic nuclei from preexisting nucleons Atmosphere the gaseous envelope Hydrosphere surface and near surface water Biosphere variety of life forms on earthLithosphere outer rigid shell of earthInterior softer material inside the earthMagnetic Field region affected by the force emanating from a magnetTopography variation in elevation of the land Bathymetry variation in the elevation of the ocean floorOrganic Chemicals carbon containing compoundsbiological remains wood peat lignite coal and oilare geologically rare decompose in contact with oxygenMinerals inorganic crystalline solidsmost are silicates based on Si and OGlasses noncrystalline mineral like matter Rocks aggregates of minerals igneouscooled from a liquid sedimentary debris cemented from preexisting rock metamorphicrock altered by pressure and temperatureSediments accumulations of loose mineral grainsMetals solids made of metallic elementsMelts rocks that have been heated to a liquid magmamolten rock beneath the surface lavamolten rock at the surfaceVolatiles materials that turn into gas at the surface released from volcanic eruption Geothermal Gradient change of temperature with depthContinental Crust granitic underlies the continentsOceanic Crust basaltic underlies the ocean basins MohorovicicMoho the case of the crust Mantle solid rock layer between the crust and the core 82 of the earths volumeCore iron rich sphere outer coreliquid ironnickelsulfur inner coresolid ironnickel alloyLithosphere outermost layer nonflowing rigid material that moves as techonic plates crust and mantle Asthenosphere upper mantle below lithosphere shallow under oceans deep under continentsConcepts to Remember terrestrial planets are the 4 most interior planets jovian planets are the 4 outermost planets asteroid belt lies between mars and jupiter blue lights have a higher frequency than redthe universe is expanding gravity shaped the earth into a sphere a small planetoid collided with the earth debris formed a ring around the earth the debris collected forming the mood small mass stars burn slowly and live longer large mass elements burn rapidly and are shorter lived interstellar space is a vacuumearth has north and south polesaurora borealisnorthern lights aurora australissouthern lights atmosphere is mostly 78 nitrogen 21 oxygen 1 other gasses atmospheric pressure changes with elevation air pressure decreases with elevation 99 of atmosphere is below 50km atmosphere layers in order troposphere011km tropopause1112km stratosphere1247km mesosphere4781km thermosphere81kmland covers 30 of the earth water covers 70 of the earth 90 of earth is composed of 4 elements iron35 oxygen30 silicon15 magnesium10Chapter 2 Geology Final Exam ReviewKey Terms and Concepts to Remember Terms to Remember Continental Drift the hypothesis that continents are mobileproposed by WegenerPlates lithosphere consists of about 20 distinct piecesContinental Drift continents drifted apart to their present day locations Sea Floor Spreading new ocean floor formed between spreading continentsSubduction as continents move toward eachother old ocean sinks back into earthGlaciers rivers or sheets of ice that flow across land surface Glossopteris subpolar plant with heavy seeds Mesosaurus a freshwater reptileLystrosaurus land dwelling reptile Cynognatathus land dwelling mammalDeclination difference between magnetic north and geographictrue north depends on longitude Inclination tilt of a compass needle from the horizontalPaleomagnetism record of the earths magnetic field as it existed at the time the rocks formed study of fossil magnetism Mid Ocean Ridges elongate submarine mountain ranges Crest ridge axis Abyssal Plains braod relatively flat regions of the ocean between ridges 45km below sea level Trenches deep elongate submarine troughs border volcanic arcs Seamounts isolated submarine mountains Fracure Zones narrow band of vertical submarine fractures Bathymetric Features movements of the crust take place here Magnetic Anomaly difference between the expected strength of the earths main dipole field at a certain location and the actual measured strength of the magnetic field at that location Chrons time interval between reversals Positive Anomalies normal polarity crust Negative Anomalies reversed polarity crust Granitic Crust 3540km thick lighter more buoyantBasaltic Crust 710km thick heavier less buoyant Continental Margins where land meets the oceanDivergent Boundaries tectonic plates move apartConvergent Boundaries tectonic plates move together Transform Boundaries tectonic plates slide sideways Pillow Basalt Magma quenched at the sea floorDikes preserved magma conduits Gabbro deeper magma Accretrionary Prism a deformed sediment wedgeVolcanic Arc a chain of volcanoes on overriding plate Back Arc Basin a marginal sea behind an arc forms between an island arc and a continentTriple Junction places where three plate boundaries coincide Hot Spots volcanic plumes independent of tectonic plate Ridge Push pushed lithosphere away Slab Pull gravity pulls subducting plate down
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