Study Guides (238,098)
United States (119,676)
Geology (94)
GEOL 1003 (31)
All (31)

GEOL 1003 Exam 1 Chapters 2-4

14 Pages
Unlock Document

Louisiana State University
GEOL 1003

Study Guide GEOL 1003 Test 1Chapter 2The Structure of MineralsoWhat constitutes something as a mineralNaturally occurringDefinite but not fixed chemical compositionMade from inorganic processesHomogenous solidsHighly ordered atomic arrangementImportant minerals1Quartz 2Calcite3Dolomite4Gypsum5Pyrite6HematiteoAn element consists of a unique kind of atomEvery chemical element has certain number of protonsThe number of protons elements atomic numberNeutral atom same number of protons and electronsInnermost electron shell holds a max of 2 electronsSecond and third shells hold a max of 8 electronsoIsotopesIsotopes different number of neutrons and protons which lead to a different atomic weightIsotopes can be radioactive nuclei decay at a constant average rate to from other isotopes daughter isotopesAverage rate of decay calculated by counting the particles that this decay produces over a given amount of timeThe total number of radioactive atoms in Earth is so big that their decay releases enough heat to warm the planet significantlyStable isotopes shed light of aspects of Earths history including changes in the composition of Earths atmosphereOxygen has 3 stable isotopesoChemical reactionsFor a mineral to exist elements must combine by way of a chemical reaction Example halite NaClA molecule is the basic unit of a chemical compound an atom is the basic unit of a chemical compoundChemical bonds are produced between atoms during a chemical reactionIonic bond one atom loses an electron to another atomAtom becomes chargedbecomes an ionCovalent bond electrons are shared rather than exchanged ex Diamonds contain covalent bondsoCrystals have 3D molecular structuresIons must have relative diameters that allow them to fit together in order for ions to form a stable compound not just the ionic charges balancingThe external shape of a mineral reflects the minerals internal structurePolymorphs same chemical composition different structure Ex Calcite and AragoniteoMajor Mineral Groups 6 Silly Sally Save Her Own SelfCant Silicates4SiO tetrahedral4Dominate mineral group in igneous sedimentary and metamorphic rocksMost crystallize at high temperaturesCarbonates2CO attached to positive ions3Soft light coloredMostly sedimentary but includes marble a metamorphic rockIncludes calcite aragonite and dolomiteSulfates2SO attached to positive ions4Soft light colored water solubleMost rockforming varieties are sedimentaryFrom large sedimentary evaporate deposits including gypsum and anhydriteHalidesPositive ions attached to negative ions of elements such as chlorine Cl and fluorine FSoft light colored watersolubleMost rock forming varieties are sedimentaryFrom large sedentary deposits including halite rock saltOxidesMetallic ions combined with oxygenSoft to hardMostly sedimentary but many varieties are present in igneous and metamorphic rocksSome are major ore minerals ex magnetite hematiteSulfidesMetallic ionsSoft to mediumOften metallic lusterHave minor role in rock forming many precipitate watery fluidsInclude pyrite as well as other important ores that form at high temperaturesoProperties of mineralsChemical bonds determine hardness
More Less

Related notes for GEOL 1003

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.