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HIST 1001
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HIST 1001Exam 4 Notes FINALOrigins of ChristianityGospels written in Greek Jesus was Jewish and spoke AramaicMessiah Jewish word for anointed one sent by God to be the king at the end of timeJesus movement what Historians call this reform movement within JudaismJesus of NazarethImposition of direct Roman rule Romans realize that this is a province that might explode into revolt they want to crush revolts they are afraid of rebellionPg 162 reform movement within JudaismJesus is arrested and put to death by the RomansPontius Pilate guy that they took Jesus to that decided his deathCrucifixionPaul from Tarsus in Asia Minor Roman citizen becomes follower of Jesus educated in many languages believes he should spread the word in Greek and outside of Judea big change movement now outside of Judaism and become its own religion Christianity more emphasis on resurrection of Jesus and Jesus as MessiahChristosChrist Greek word for Messiah Paul uses this wordEmergence of this new religion followers called ChristiansEarly Christian art and symbolsDo not have the crucifixion down played as an image still part of punishment in their cultureInstead we see Jesus depicted as the good shepherd teacherChi Rho Begin to see X and P Greek letters for Christos becomes symbol for Jesus also Alpha and OmegaChristians practiced full body burialCrisis and ChristianizationAlexamenos graffito lots of graffiti during this time in Roman world shows a man with his hand up Roman sign of praise a man crucified with head of a horse in Greek is written words that mean Alexamenos worships his god this if antiChristian graffitiPersecutions not wide spread flare up in areas happen as a result of some incidence most occur with the imperial cult found in the provinces forced to sacrifice to the emperor in the hopes to make them more loyal to Rome if you were a Christian you could not sacrifice most arrests were because of this judge gave them opportunity to sacrifice the incense or death condemned criminals often used in plays and entertainmentpg166describing martyrs witnesses Christians who did not pay the sacrificePerpetua martyr from good Roman family in Carthage lived 200 AD arrested with a group of fellow Christians she was free but the others were slaves had just had a child when she was called in front of the judge her father begs her to just sacrifice she refuses the father says you are killing yourself and your baby she gets thrown in arena in gladiator show while she was in prison she wrote the story of what was going on and how she feels about going against her father father very important he was beaten account quickly gets copied and spreadThe shock of how the people reacted to the Christians either thought they were crazy or were interested in what makes these people praise in times of trouble Christianity spreads faster in these areas where Christians were persecutedEnd of the Pax RomanaMarked with the death of the emperor Marcus Erilias he was a soldier philosopher grew a beard non Roman fashion when he dies we see the beginning of the rule of pretty bad emperors dies while trying to fight GermansCommodus 177192 AD son of Marcus Erilias obsessed with circus and gladiator shows depicted as Hercules participated in shows known as being an awful emperor spends money frivolously assassinated in 192 AD no heir so Civil WarRoman economy was built on conquest military had been paying for itselfPersians giving trouble border constantly moving military having to stay on Persian borderDecide to go north cant grow olives or grapes giant forest there completely different climate Romans try conquer Britain but really hard different warfare finally Romans decide to fall back on natural defenses on Rhine and Danube River use as defensive barriers build forts along them guard few crossing points and bridges not conquering 200000 troops to care forEconomic crisis cannot expand anymore start increasing taxes arbitrary forcing people along forts to give up their goodsBegin to see new emperors being appointed by the soldiers themselves each troop picked who they thought should be it civil warsRome keeps growing in size crisis in Roman EmpireDiocletian 284305 comes up with plans to solve crisis Roman general acclaimed emperor faced with economic crisis comes up with plans1Divides the empire in half linguistic divide Latin west and Greek east each side there is an emperor an Augustus Diocletian is Augustus of the east friend is Augustus of the west2Tetrarchy the rule of 4 set up a new position called the Caesar which functioned as a vice emperor each had a Caesar serving under them usually your own son if not a close friend when the Augustus died or retired the Caesar would move up to Augustus and pick a new Caesar huggingholding on to each other in images ends up working brings stability to the imperial office3Divided up each province of Rome into much smaller units set standard rate of taxation put officials tax farmers in each one of these Diocese and they would be in charge of collecting in that region4Great Persecution begins a full scale persecution of Christians trying to reform the Roman Empire saw this spreading religion that said you couldnt kill as a problem confiscates property from Christians outlaws them from some political and teaching positions tries to make sure the imperial cult is being followedEarly ChristianityBaptism had to be approved for baptismEucharist symbolizing the last supper wineblood breadbodyAll people were allowed to be Christians met in early churches called domus ecclesia house of assembly met behind closed doors accusations began going around since people did not know what was going on male only priesthood
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