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History Final Exam Notes (highest grade in class)

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HIST 1001
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History 1001Topic IVIOrigins of Medieval Europe15001350 ADBRoman and German Practices1Roman citiesGerman tribes2Roman magistratesGerman chieftainsaThese magistrates were usually elected and were answerable to the votersbThe chieftains positions were hereditaryNo elections3UnarmedarmedaWhen Greeks or Romans went places they went unarmedbWhen Germans went to a meeting they went armed and would bang their weapons on their shields to show anger about decisions that were made4Roman laws German memoriesaRoman and Greek justice systembGermans relied on their memoriesTrials by ordeal5Germans tried to be civilized but failedCContinues Decline of Civilization1Fall of Rome 476 AD2Germans Tribes took overaSettled among Romans Many became ChristianbTried to maintain Roman institutionsiLearned Latin tried to keep the trading going on But it did not work3600s Arab Conquests of Middle East North Africa and SpainaCut Mediterranean trade Disappearance of moneybDecline of cities continuedDCharlemagne 768814 ADaFranks German tribebFrankish Kingdom Established by the Franks around Paris in 500 ADcMayor of the PalaceThe most powerful person in the Frankish KingdomiHe is in charge of getting the food to feed the people of the palacedCharles Martel the Hammer served c 714741 Mayor of the PalaceBattle of Tours 732Charles Martel was commander of the Frankish army who defeated the Muslims coming up from Spain He saved western Christianity from the MuslimsePippin the Short ruled 741768Charles Martels son He became Mayor of the Palace and dismissed the king to call himself King First King of the Franks Father of CharlemagnefVictories in battle reason why called the GreatSaxons Crossed the Rhine and entered German territory to defeat the Saxons iProtector of Pope Leo IIIthThe word pope started about 6 centuryThese families feuded with one another for popeLeo needed protection from all areasEmperor and Augustus 800 ADCharlemagne shows up in Rome with some of his soldiers On Christmas day was in the old St Peters praying when Leo the III snuck up on him pulled out a crown placed it on Charlemagnes head and crowned him Emperor and AugustusgPolitical OrderRelative peacehTried to revive cultureAachen AixlaChappelleHis capitol and he created a school there for his warriors and their childreniAlcuin of YorkHe ran the school They collected manuscripts as they found them because a lot of things had been lost He systematized the small letters of the Latin alphabet He tried to teach Charlemagne how to read and write but he failed Louis the Pious ruled 814840iiCharlemagnes son unable to hold it togetherIIFeudalismCreated a sense of corporate responsibility and obligation that is the foundation of participatory government Concerned about defending society maintaining order delivering justice and collecting tax revenue Government at its most primitive based on loyalty of one person to another Parliament came from feudalism Provided order in time of chaos after fall of Roman Empire Roman government is based on cities but the cities collapsed Feudal government is based on the countrysideAManorialismRomanPrimarily an economic system Labor in exchange for protection Manor means the landlords estate1Obligations of the landlord lordProvide protection Judgment in disputes between peasants Grazing rights Firewood and building materials Place for the peasants sons Only the landlord could hunt but gave it to peasants to clean then shared meat 2Obligations of the farmer peasantWork his land and the lords land wife is house maid Pay dues in kind produce and labor Landlord allows peasant to have cows on their land they give him milk and beefBVassalage German Loyalty of a warrior to his chief Chieftain must provide for his warriors vassals were rewarded with manors When vassals get a manor they get peasants alsoCCarolingian Feudalism Feudalism under CharlemagneCombined Manorialism and Vassalage into a system brought together under Charlemagne1Classic FeudalismKingKingdomWould grant a large amount of land duchies to a duke his vassalDukesDuchiesHe divides his property to smaller amounts of counties to his countsCountsCountiesHe divides his land in to smaller amounts viscounties to a viscountViscountsViscountiesHe divides his land in to smaller amounts manors to a knightKnightsManorsFeudum grant of landaPeasants were not vassals bc theyre not warriors They belonged to the manorIf Count dies and has no sons daughter takes over When called up to war she hires someone to go fight for her provide him w horses armor and weapons Based on loyalty if King dies and son takes over dukes may not be as loyal to son as they were to the fatherDNew Invaders
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