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HISTORY TEST 2 NOTES

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1001
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
HistoryStudyGuideForTest2QuizzesAtthetimeofAlexandersinvasionofPersiaThePersianEmpirehadgrownmuchstrongersincethePersianWarsoftheearlyFifthCenturyAfterthePeloponnesianWartheGreekcitystateswereweakenedbychronicwarfareIntheBattleofChaeronea338PhillipofMacedoniadefeatedaGreekallianceledbyThebesandAthensThebestsourceforourknowledgeofthelifeofAlexandertheGreatisaGreekhistorianArrianwholivedfourcenturiesafterAlexanderThecitystateofThebesinthefourthcenturydefeatedtheSpartansinamajorbattleandliberatedthehelotsPhillip2ofMacedoniadidnotuseeconomicpressuretoestablishcontroloverGreeceInreferencetoAlexandersadministrationofhisempireAlexanderwasnotavisionarywhowasattemptingtopromoteuniversalharmonyandbrotherhoodAftertheBattleofChaeroneaPhillipofMacedonformedanewalliancetheLeagueofCorinththatincludedanumberofimportantcitystatesAlexandercaughtafeveranddiedatBabylonafewdaysafteradrinkingpartyPhillipofMacedonwasassassinatedbyoneofhisownofficerswhohadapersonalquarrelwiththekingHannibalwasabrillianttacticianwhoscoredmanyvictoriesbutwaseventuallydefeatedbytheRomangeneralScipioCleopatradidnottrytoensureherownsurvivalandthatofherkingdombyseducingOctavianTheGreekwriterPolybiuswroteahistoryofRomeinwhichhesaidRomesstrengthwasduetoitsadmirablemixedconstitutionCaesarwasappointedtogovernonlyCisalpineGaulbutthenmanagedtoexpandhiscampaignandconqueredtheentirenationJuliusCaesarwaskilledbyaristocratswhoresentedhisusurpationoftheirtraditionaldominanceofthestateTheoutcomeoftheStruggleoftheOrdersbetween494and287BCEwasthepatriciansmadesignificantconcessionsthatdidnotfundamentallycompromisetheirdominanceAfterthrowingoffEtruscanrulearound500BCRomangovernmentdidnotincludeadictatorwhosetermofofficewaslimitedtooneyearPompeydidnothavehimselfelectedasthefirstdictatorforlifeSecondTriumvirateincludedallofthefollowingMarkAntonyOctavianLepidusInRomanreligionwomandidhavearoleinthepublicinstitutionsdevotedtoreligioninRomeTheoutcomeofthePunicWarswasRomedestroyedCarthageandtookcontroloftheWesternMediterraneanTiberiusandGaiusGracchusbothenactedimportantreformsbuttheSenateresistedandthebothcametoviolentendsInthelifestylesinImperialRomemembersoftheworkingclassesoftenlivedinsmallroomsontheupperfloorofhighrisetenementsImportantwritersofthefirsttwocenturiesoftheRomanEmpireincludedTacitusVirgilOvidandHoraceNotPolybiusDuringhisreignAugustusdidnotaccomplishdeifyingtheofficeofemperorDuringthelateRepublicandearlyEmpiretheeconomywasnotcharacterizedbythegrowthoftownsintheWesttorivalthoseoftheEastTheriseofChristianitydidnotcontributetotheperiodofcrisisfrom192to248ConcerningRomanslaveryGladiatorswereprobablythebestmotivatedslavesbecausetheyhadachanceofwinningtheirfreedomthroughvictoryAkeytostabilityduringthereignoftheFiveGoodEmperorswastheirpracticeofadoptingawellqualifiedleaderastheirsonandsuccessorTheplaceoflawinRomansocietywasthattheRomanlegaltraditionprovidedamodelformanylaterEuropeansocietiestofollowTheJulioClaudiandynastydidhavemembersofthedynastyafterAugustusthatmanagedtomadeadditionstotheempireThethreeunifyingelementsthatheldtogethertheRomanEmpirearethefigureoftheemperorthecivilbureaucracyandthearmyNOTESTEST2GreeceafterthePeloponnesianWarPersiastilltheonlysuperpowerLegacyofDisunitytheAgeofHegemoniesSocratescamebackdownintothecaveanddidntknowhowtovaluethethingsthatrestofsocietyvaluedHeendedupbeingputontrialforcorruptingtheyouthandworshipingothergodsAthenscouldhavebeenwipedoutofexistencefromthePeloponnesianwarTheywantedtofindsomeonetoblameforthemajordownturnsinAthensThelookedtoprominentfiguresintheirsocietyandthosepeoplehappenedtobefriendsofSocrateseventhoughheprobablywasntpartofanyofthebadthingsthathappenedrevolutionsThatexperienceandtheendofthePWararethingsthatarelookedatasendingtheGoldenAgeinAthensGreekculturalachievementwasoveratthispointTheGoldenAgewasneverahappysettledtimeIttookplacebetweenthebackdropofaworldatwarSpartaastheoverlordbutneverfirmlyincontrolHabitofneversettingdowntheirweaponsWasnotsecurebecausetheywerenotaloneinwinningthatwarTheyhadalliesCorinthThebesandothersTheseallieswerestillaroundandlookedatSpartaandthoughtthatwithoutafoeSpartawouldhavetoomuchpowerMostcharacteristicthingofGreekswereneverunitedonlywhenunityandpeacewasforceduponthemKingsPeace386BCEPersiasKingtheEnforcer18yrsafterPWarisoverAfterSpartanshavebeentryingtosecuretheirtopplaceintheworldAskedthekingtohelpimposepeaceinGreeceUnderthistreatyrequiredallGreececitiestosignthetreatNoGreekcitywouldtrytoimposetheirwillonanyotherTheywouldrespectforeachothersfreedomandantimonyIfanyoneviolatesitThePersiankingwillmakewaragainstthatviolatorwitharmsandmenandmoneyInreturnforthekingsroleinpeaceifyingtheGreekshavetogiveupallthelandthatwashistoricallyhisGreekcitiesofasiaminorandGreekislandsSpartaisinstrumentalinputtingthisprovisioninandtherestoftheGreekcitiesfeltbetrayedSpartacanneversitbackandrestPersiabenefitedfromthisTheyarestillaroundverywealthypowerfulandbigTheydontwanttotrytoinvadeGreeceanymorebuttheirinterestisnowGreekDiplomacyTheKingsofthepastalwaysgottheirasseshandedtothemThekingistryingtokeepGreecebusybetweenthemselvesintheinterestofthePersiansWhateverhappenedtounityagainstthebarbarian
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