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Final Exam Notes For 1003 (got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
HIST 1003

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCESTuesday December 021128 AM1The Big PictureAThe French revolution introduced new ideas new kinds of politics new visions of the social order but it did so at the time when the industrial revolution was changing the economic rules of the gameAResponses to revolution responses to the political challenge of the French revolution and the responses to the industrial revolutionAHow the west had to respond to the French revolution and the industrialAThe west keeps changing it is very much defined by economic prosperity and it is very much centered in Industrial revolution1Whats In a NamethAIt is a name that was first given to economic developments in the 18 century It was a deliberate comparisonAThe problems with the name1A revolution applies something you could easily date but there is no clear beginning or end Most say it was underway by 1760s 1Hard to define1Most historians say that Britain was an Industrial State by 1850 but by then most of the stuff in Britain wasnt Industrial1Industrial revolution spreads throughout the west but even by the outbreak of WWI most of Europe wasnt Industrialized it was a very slow revolutionAMost historians say that the way to understand the revolution they should study industrial economyduel economy the idea of an economy that includes both modern and industrial sectorsnon industrial and industrial Industrialization happened at different rates in different regions and it happened at different rates at thdifferent industries Its one of the things that makes the 19 century so complicated and so interesting because you have the industrial world and the modern world coming togetherA4 part definition of industrial revolution1Modes of productions about machines and making stuff Substitution of mechanical processes for human skill and substitution of mechanical power for human power horse human doesnt pull wagon but steam engines do Change in venue factories instead of workshops 1Human relationshipsnew ways of people thinking about people get a shift from craftsmen and apprentices to bosses and workers apprentice is learning to be the craftsmen but that isnt expected between boss and worker From craftsman to entrepreneur innovator idea person to take a risk to see something and go for it From patron to consumer the Cash Nexusthe thing that brings people together is no longer custom tradition it is now cash1New modes of thinking1New age in economic history an era of contained extended economic growth1Why BritainAIn 1850 75 of British economy is not industrialized but the 25 that was was EXTREMELY impressive They had the most steam engines in the worldAWhy did they industrialize spontaneously After Britain industrialized the governments pushed economization AThe Right Stuff SupplyThe Willingness to Use the Stuff Demand1SupplyBritain was most advanced in the westaBritain was lucky in the geography huge amounts of coal products and iron ore lead etc it was also lucky because it was a fairly small island so no part of Britain was very far from water and that was the cheapest for of transportation It also has many rivers going through itaHad a long and developed tradition of building up a navy which meant that Britain was already developing an overseas empire which gave it access to what it didnt have already there cotton etcaSurplus labor force needed jobs aSurplus capital people who had a lot of money looking to invest it somewhereaHave financial structures to help the revolution Stock market insurance etc1DemandaBritain was an exception to the rule of revolution Parliament th century It presented interests in the land represented throughout the 18and title The land and elite kept economic power the men making the laws were the same men benefiting directly from those laws who owns all of the wealthy land NoblemenaBritish parliament passes laws for free internal trade making laws to help trade because the money is going into their pocketsaThe rights of the land are absolute absolute rights of private propertyaGuild laws are abolished if you want to make a cloth you dont have to join a guild and follow their rulesAAgricultural Revolution1Shift from farming for self to market farming1Now with the enlightenment you get the rise of scientific farming more efficient and productive1Explains why Britain had a surplus labor force because more and more workers are getting pushed off the land and they are going into the work force1Explains why there is surplus capital because those who can keep their land are getting enormous profits and they want to spend it somewhereACommercial revolution1Mercantile for profitBefore industrialization begins there is already a growing economy with 1risk takers so thats why there is a stock market and insuranceth1British society looked very different form France by the 18 century Britain had a class of very wealthy and very poor but there were a lot of people in the middlethose people had a little bit to spend not as much as the wealthy but not as bad off as the poorAConsumer Revolution1Had the largest amount of numbers for the participants in the revolution1The Changing World of WorkAThe working conditions which horrify us were seen as absolutely normal and the working conditions we do today horrified themAEarly factory workers were called hands not humans easily replacedAWhat didnt change what they thought was normal1Very long workday 12 to 18 hours You work until the work is finished or until the light is gone1The idea of children in factories or coal mines Children were expected to work as soon as they could walk The presence of women in factories also Everyone worked in that society Women and children actually dominated people preferred to hire them becauseaTheir hands were smalleraThey were cheaperaThey were easier to discipline AWhat did change1There was a standardization of the workdayaWith the machine came the need for uniformity so the long work days became standard throughout every seasonUsually during the winter the workdays would be shorter because there was less light and in the summer longer because more lightaThe work was seen in terms of time not output1Thinking of work in terms of time clock time aThe clock becomes more and more important Now time becomes a moral issue a good man and moral man is a man who doesnt waste time and he is on time1Standardizing of work paceA machine doesnt get tired factory work was standardaaThis was especially brutal for children because they get tired and have a short attention span and they will lose fingers1Close and constant supervisionaThe superintendent was called the over lookeraThis idea was extremely demeaning to adult males violated manhood Thats why men tried to avoid factory labor because they saw it as demeaning and insulting to have a man over them constantly watching them at all timesaThe worker becomes alienated from his work he is no longer in charge of workday in charge or rhythm it is all dictated by machine Loss of dignity and loss of controlTHE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CHANGING THE WORLD OF WORKTuesday December 02 1129 AMThe Liberal SolutionThe French revolution sets the political agenda How do you get freedom And how do you have a society where everyone is equal and free How do people respond to the political economic and cultural challengesIA Response to the RevolutionALiberalism idealology of the emerging middle classes The basic assumption was that society exists with free individuals The whole idea was to liberate to free the individualILiberal economicsACentered on the free market One textbook defined the core of liberal theory as aiming to buy and sell everything in the free market to free up buying and selling thLiberals in the 19 c were out to change the status quo they were out to remove the status that existed Example the guild system they said production should be free
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