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Department
History
Course
HIST 1007
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
World History after 1500World historyoPlagues warfare technology cultural exchange migration religion empires tradeo1500s Many empires expanding West would become dominantBackground EurasiaoThe Mongols and their impact 1200s much of Eurasia is unified by the Mongols Nomadic came from central Asia virtually unstoppable Largest empire of land the world had seen thus far Russia China Mongolia Very brutal and took nor prisoners skilled horseman secret military tactic and learned to shoot arrows promoted unity and trade across the empire postal service caused the biggest epidemic in world history the black deathoThe spread of the bubonic plague started in China and spread westward a destructive and devastating event killed about half the population in Europe 4x more destructive than both world wars destroyed people but not wealth not crops or cattle they had inherited the wealth of the diseasedChina around 1500oGun powder compass silk soap paper porcelain all these things contributed for China to be the most dominant country back theno4x more people than the United States nowoLand and Population Started by Yellow River nearly 2000 years ago Land was flat and then moved towards the Yangtze RiverIts population density was much the same but the people were compressed because of the small land and so not much wealth No land for cattle or farmingChina was all about contributing to the whole not for the individual It is not part of their heritage to have basic rights The art reflects this by showing the landscape as a greater priority rather than peopleoGovernmentEmperor The Mandate of HeavenConsidered to be a sort of divine figure god on earth Supposed to have the power to bring prosperity make the crops goCowtowing prostrate yourself three times before addressing the emperorBureaucracy the civil servants are very prestigious through learningMust pass a civil service exam Depending on how well you did the position was determined on classical Chinese teachings from ConfuciusCould move up didnt have to be of high status though over time the system would be slightly corrupt Things in turn wouldnt get done and the government would start to fall apartThe government would have less control and the peasants would start rebelling and the cosmic consequence would be that the mandate of heaven should be given to someone elseThe Ming Dynasty 13681644 Comes in right after the bubonic plague The Mongols were losing control and Hongwu a peasant succeeds in finally overthrowing them claiming the title of emperorNew dynasty is called the brilliant dynastyAnyone suspected of going against him or being disloyal they were put to deathHongwus children settle down and China becomes prosperous The imperial palace in Beijing is built during this time by Hongwus grandson Called the forbidden city The Great Wall was repaired during this time Know where things areThe Qing Dynasty 16441911 All the corruption made the Ming Dynasty fallAnother group from outside near Manchuria overtake the Ming Dynasty They proclaim the Mandate of Heaven for themselves The name Qing means the pure dynastyThey consider themselves to be different from the Chinese and do not marry them They do however assimilate to the cultureDuring this time China expands drastically including taking Tibet Taiwan and MongoliaEmperor Kangxi 16611722 he was the epitome of the Qing dynasty First Europeans showed up missionaries and assimilated into the Chinese culture to spread the word about Jesus Brought along the western developmentsthoConfucian values started in 5 century BCHow can people learn to live in peace1 Tradition most important trait in Confucianism2 Filial piety 3 Patriarchy 4 Social hierarchy Scholars Peasants and Craftsman Merchants thought to be suspicious in China SoldiersWomen were second class subjects and when married became a part of her husbands familyIt was thought to be attractive when women hobbled This was from them binding their feet together and breaking them The Father was to be respected and could if he wanted sell his sons into slaveryoEconomic consequencesIn the Early 1400s the Ming develops a fleet to sail into the world In 1433 someone in the Bureaucracy decided they didnt need the fleet and it was destroyedChina didnt really need anything in the world It had everything is needed to support the population If the west wanted something they had to have a big contribution It continued to think of itself as the center of human civilizationJapan around 1500oLandSmaller than California A series of islands off Asia Mongols tried to invade Japan and a typhoon drove them away Adopted many things from China Very Mountainous small areas used for cultivation because of this High density of people about 5000 people per square mile oGovernmentJapanese Feudalism Daimyo aristocracy land owners and the wealth Remained in power by military force A warrior societySamurai swore loyalty to Daimyo for a piece of land and fought for them Suicide was preferable to surrender Went out to gain more land Expected were to be graceful The swords were of high quality steel could cut a European sword in halfoThe Era of Warring StatesChanges in warfare Less interest in individual fighting and they start assembling peasants into armies giving them weapons It was thought to be more destructive A great age of castle buildingArrival of the Portuguese 1543 wanted to tradeGuns gunpowder was invented by the Chinese but the Europeans invented the gunMissionaries after about 15 years there are about 500000 Christians in Japan The politics had a great deal to do with converting If the Daimyo wanted to trade it converted Though Japanese was in turmoil it was open to trading with the EuropeansoUnification after 1568 the Tokugawa era 1600 1867Hideyoshi 158292 rising up in the ranks starts as a foot soldier but eventually extends his rule to Daimyo Launches an invasion into KoreaTokugawa Ieyasu 16001616 and the Shogunate establishes supremacy and passes on to his children for a few centuries Not the emperor but a Shogunate which means military leaderCentralized GovernmentTokugawa establishes Edo later Tokyo as a central city to end warfareHe decrees every Daimyo must spend every other year in this city and a year at home A lot of communication between country and city for tradeAntiEuropean AntiChristianForces Japan to be isolated and not trade with Europeans Prevented from going abroad Except the Dutch who have an island China is even restricted with tradeDont need guns because of the peaceBan on Christianity No trade because they tried to smuggle in Missionaries Many martyrs in Japan because people tried to enlighten Japan and died for their faithConfucianism in JapanPromoted higher centralized societyThe 200 year peaceNot stagnation It prospered and flourished Peasants are freed up for their own affairsIn the 1700s Edo is probably the largest city in the world Found they were running out of forests but started saving themOne of the first countries to succeed in controlling the population by postponeing marriage abortion and infanticideoA note on KoreaA peninsula 115 miles from Japan Between China and Japan
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