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History Exam 1 (97% in the course

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HIST 1007
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1What is the Columbian ExchangeWhat were the positive and negative impacts of the exchanges The Columbian Exchange was the exchange offood crops animals diseases and People between the old world Eurasia and Africa and the new worldthe thAmericas during exploration in the 16 cCalled the Columbian Exchange because it follows the route Columbus took to the AmericasPositives the exchange of animals and food crops This exchange is what ultimately increased the human population From Eurasia to the new world wheat rice sugar bananas apples cherries peaches peas and Citrus fruits Wheat grew well in the plains of N America From Africa yams okra collard greens and coffee From Europe Dairy and meat yielding animals horses cattle pigs sheep goats and chickensFrom the Americas to the old world maize potatoes beans tomatoes peppers peanuts manico papayas guavas avocados pineapples and cacaotobacco important as a cash crop thbecause of how popular tobacco gets In the 18 c Maize and potatoes contribute to the increase in the number of calories in Eurasian diets Maize became important in China because it grew in places rice and millet could not American beans varieties added protein and tomatoes and peppers added vitamins and zesty flavors in lands from western Europe to china Americas also provided medical plantsPeruvian cinchona tree provided a quinine the was effective in treating malaria and aided the Europeans trying to survive in tropical mosquito ridden areasththMigration of people neither positive nor negative Between the 16 and 19 c the largest contingent of migrants consisted of enslaved Africans transported thinvoluntarily to the Americas ant the Caribbean During the 19 c massive numbers of European peoples traveled to the western hemispheresouth Africa Australia and the pacific islands where epidemics had subsidedNegatives the exchange of infectious and contagious diseases The diseases that were exchanged from the old world to the new world were smallpox measles influenza diphtheria and whooping cough The worst of these diseases was smallpox Small pox caused the Aztec population to decline by 90 in just a little over a century These diseases were extremely devastating to the native peoples of the lands explored and conquered by the Europeans because the native had never been exposed to the diseases Therefore the Native populations had no immunity to these diseases The devastating effect of mainly smallpox on the native people made it easy for European powers to oppress and subject them to their rule2 In 1500 there was one church in 1550 there were manyDiscussThe Protestant ReformationIn 1500 there was only the roman catholic church People are unhappy with the way the church is being ran Its practices are starting to be critiqued The reformation begins in the church Martin Luther was a catholic priest in Germany He had a problem with Simony Pluralism and Indulgences October 1517 95 Thesis basically Luthers problems with the practices of the Catholic Church Written in Latin and translated into German This got Luther accused of heresyPope Leo X wanted to rebuild St Peters Basillica and was use John Tetzel to sell indulgences do soDiet of Worms 1520Luthers3 tenants establishes Protestanism 1Sola Fideonly fate 2sola scriptura only the Bible 3 The Equality of Believer this takes out the middle man making Priests and Bishops unimportant Luthers 2 SacramentsThe Catholic Reformationthe CounterreformationStrengthens church as an institutionThe Catholics are forced to define themselvesCouncil of Trent 1545 called by Pope Paul III Called because after Luther published his works the Catholic Church began losing followers and the church began to feel that he church would fail if the new ideas were not combatedTridenten Orthodoxythe roman catholic church defined what it was to be catholicLatin7 SacramentsBrings back Oricular confessions which make the priest important
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