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History Exam3 Study Guide

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HIST 2055
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History Final Exam Study GuideIDs1Missouri CompromiseaMissouri Compromise of 1820any part of the Louisiana Purchase north of this line Missouris southern border was to be excluded from slavery In 1850 the parallel 3630 north was established as the northernmost boundary of the slave state of Texas2Harriet Beecher Stowe 18111896awas an American abolitionist and author Stowes novel Uncle Toms Cabin 1852 depicted life for AfricanAmericans under slavery it reached millions as a novel and play and became influential in the United States and United Kingdom and made the political issues of the 1850s regarding slavery tangible to millions energizing antislavery forces in the American North while provoking widespread anger in the South Upon meeting Stowe Abraham Lincoln allegedly remarked So youre the little lady who started this great war3Anaconda Planaunion general Winfield Scott developed this 3 pronged strategy to defeat the confederacy Like a snake strangling its prey the Union army would crush its enemy through exerting pressure on Richmond blockading Confederate ports and dividing the South by invading its major waterwayso45440 or Flighta1844 Democratic presidential candidate James K Polk ran on a platform of taking control over the entire Oregon Territory and used the famous campaign slogan Fiftyfour Forty or Fight after the line of latitude serving as the northern boundary of Oregon at 5440 Polks plan was to claim and go to war over the entire territory for the United States Polk won the election over Henry Clay5David R Atchinson 18071886aHe served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate for six years He is best known for the claim that for one day March 4 1849 he may have been Acting President of the United States proslavery activist and Border Ruffian leader deeply involved with violence against abolitionists and other freestaters during the Bleeding Kansas events6Bleeding KansasbViolence between pro and antislavery settlers in the Kansas Territory 1856 At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or slave state set into motion by the KansasNebraska Act of 1854 which nullified the Missouri Compromise and instead implemented the concept of popular sovereignty An ostensibly democratic idea popular sovereignty stated that the inhabitants of each territory or state should decide whether it would be a free or slave state however this resulted in immigration en masse to Kansas by activists from both sides At one point Kansas had two separate governments each with its own constitution although only one was federally recognized On January 29 1861 Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state less than three months before the Battle of Fort Sumter which began the Civil War6Border RuffiansPukesacitizens of western Missouri who endeavored to establish slavery in Kansas Territory Border ruffians voted illegally in Kansas elections stole horses and raided several towns including Lawrence on 21 May 18567Preston Brooks 18191857awas a Democratic Congressman from South Carolina known for severely beating Senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate with a cane in response to a perceived insultBrooks was cheered across the South but the episode was used by Northerners to depict the Southerners as violent fanatics thus pushing the nation a step closer to Civil War8John Brown 18001859aWilling to use violence to further his antislavery beliefs In 1856 a proslavery mob sacked the free state town of Lawrence Kansas John Brown went to the proslavery settlement of Pottawatomie Kansas and hacked to death several people which led to guerilla war in the Kansas territory 1859 he attempted to raid the federal arsenal at Harpers ferry He hoped to use the stolen weapons to arm slaves but he was captured and executed His failed raid instilled panic throughout the South and his execution turned him into a martyr for his cause9James Buchanan 17911868awas the 15th President of the United States from 18571861 and the last to be born in the 18th century To date he is the only president from the state of Pennsylvania and the only president to remain a bachelor Buchanans efforts to maintain peace between the North and the South alienated both sides and as the Southern states declared their secession in the prologue to the American Civil War Buchanans opinion was that secession was illegal but that going to war to stop it was also illegal hence he remained inactive By the time he left office popular opinion had turned against him and the Democratic Party had split in two10Anthony Burns 18321862aas born a slave in Stafford County Virginia As a young man he converted to Baptism and became a slave preacher 1850 would prove a vital year in Burns life because of the passage of the new Fugitive Slave Law that said that all slaves must be returned to their master regardless of where they were discovered a major setback to abolitionists efforts to emancipate all slaves This law would later cause Burns great troubles when he became a fugitive himself11John C Calhoun 17821850aServed in both the house of Representatives and the Senate for South Carolina before becoming secretary of war under pres Monroe and then John Quincy Adamss vice ndpresident Introduced the bill for the 2 national bank to congress and led the minority of southerners who voted for the tariff of 1816 He later chose to oppose tariffs As sec of war he authorized the use of federal troops against the Seminoles who were attacked settlers As VP he supported a new tariffs bill to win presidential candidate Andrew Jackson additional support Jackson won election12Henry Clay17771852aForemost spokesman for the American system As speaker of the house in the 1820s he promoted economic nationalism market revolution and the rapid development of western states and territories Formulated the second Missouri Compromise denying the Missouri state legislature power to exclude the rights of free blacks and mulattos Clay appointed to sec of state under john quincy adam although corrupt bargain was claimed13Compromise of 1850The Compromise of 1850 was an intricate package of five bills passed in September 1850 which defused a fouryear confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the MexicanAmerican War 18461848 The compromise drafted by Whig Henry Clay and brokered by DemocratStephen Douglas avoided secession or civil war at the time and reduced sectional conflict for four years14Jefferson Davis 18081889aHe was the president of the Confederacy during the Civil War When the confederacys defeat seemed inevitable in early 1865 he refused to surrender Union forces captured him in May of that year Originally a senator for MS Very ineffective leader as President contributed to demise of the south15John Deere 18041886awas an American blacksmith and manufacturer who founded DeereCompany one of the largest agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers in the world He served as President of the National Bank of Moline a director of the Moline Free Public Library and was a trustee of the First Congregational Church Invented steel plow 16Donner Party
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