1. What is progressivism?
A reform movement consisting of labor reforms, expansion of democracy, urban reforms.
Also, a larger and more active government.
2. Who was most likely to be a progressive?
Urban men and women form black and white communities
3. What goals did Progressives pursue?
Regulation of big business, expansion of democracy, cracking down on alcohol
4. What did progressivism look like at the national level?
5. Limitations of progressivism?
Women get vote, but blacks and poor whites are disenfranchised. Limits often related to
6. Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy
• Believed congress was inept at foreign affairs.
• Use diplomacy and pressure to advance U.S. interest and be willing to back
demands with force.
• Big stick diplomacy in Caribbean, Europe, and Asia
• Protective of western hemisphere
• Active foreign policy
• Latin America
• “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”
7. Taft’s foreign policy
• Wanted to advance U.S. interests abroad
• “Dollar diplomacy”
• $ invested in Latin America
• Used force when necessary
8. Wilson’s foreign policy
• Mostly focused on domestic issues, had little experience
• Protect U.S. financial interests actively
• “Missionary diplomacy”
• Vigorous policy of intervention despite promises
• Haiti, Dominican Republic, Mexican Revolution
• Wanted U.S. to be neutral in WWI
9. How WWI began?
• Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
• European countries had been competing for colonies and supremacy
10. How did Americans feel about the war in Europe?
• Supportive, but did not want to get involved
11. What events and factors led to the U.S. joining WWI? • Germans attacking ships: Lusitania, Sussex, 4 American freighters
• Russian Revolution Russia a fit ally for U.S.
• Zimmerman telegraph
12. Think about how the Schenck and Abrams cases conflicted with “making the
world safe for democracy.”
• Raised questions about what limits can be put on speech and the courts sided with
the restrictive acts.
13. What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
• Germany had to accept sole responsibility for the war
• Germany had to pay huge sum in reparations
• Germany had to give up land to France, Belgium, Poland, and Denmark
• Germany had to severely limit army, abandon armaments
14. How did Wilson undermine his position in Paris and at home during negotiations?
• With a lack of domestic support. He used the war in 1918, which angered
republicans. He also encouraged voters to vote for democrats to approve his peace
plans. He also refused to consult with republicans about the plans for the
15. What did America experience in the immediate aftermath of WWI?
16. Outbreak of Spanish Influenza
• Removal of wartime price controls led to high inflation (cost food, clothing
• Unemployment, housing shortages became serious
• Farm income declined by 65% between 19191921
• No real planning to demobilize wartime economy
17. State of U.S. economy in the 1920s?
• 1920s, Americans bought stock in record numbers, stocks being bought on margin
• U.S. economy experience severe recession in 19201921, unemployment soared
and demand fell
• Wartime profits provided investment capital
• Businesses consolidated into larger and larger companies
• Agriculture never recovered from 1921 depression
• System not stable for long term
• 1929 panic and beginning of falling out
18. How were American workers affected by the economy?
• Real wages (purchasing power) did increase in the 1920s
• More people did buy more products, but the gains and improvements were uneven
• Purchasing power went up largely because of falling prices.
• Wage stabilized after 1923
• Unskilled workers, minorities, southerners, and women saw a decline.
• By 1929, 71% of American families earning less than a “decent standard of
19. What was the role of the government in the 1920s economically and in foreign
policy? • Republicans raised the tariff, fought against unions, curtailed regulation.
• Also, nominated probusiness justices to the Supreme Court.
• Didn’t want to see a return of activist government.
• Republicans pursued mixed foreign policy, promoted peace but also used force
• Republicans used private business leaders to promote peace and also backed
expansion of business overseas.
• U.S. continued to use military in Latin America, much more limited than during
20. What kind of changes took place in society and culture in the 1920s?
• Americans on the move, more people in cities
• The Great Migration movement of African Americans out of the south for jobs
• Hispanic immigration increased in 1920s
• Development of popular or mass culture: standardized experiences and interests
through advertising, movies, radio, phonographs
• New types of music: jazz
• Embraced new kinds of dress and behavior. Example: flappers
• Emphasis on consumption and personal pleasure, which contradicted older values
of thrift, sacrifice, and modesty.
• No real changes to traditional gender roles, class, or race.
21. What are some examples of tension in American society in the 1920s?
• Nativism (revival of KKK), immigration restriction, prohibition.
22. What happened in the presidential election of 1928?
23. Cultural issues basis of 1928 presidential campaign
• Hebert Hoover (R.) vs. Al Smith (D.)
• Hoover seen as model of efficiency and morality and promised to continue
• Al Smith was more controversial, opposed prohibition and immigration restriction