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HIST 2057
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The Bomb and the Start of the Cold WarThe bomboGerman scientists originally came up with the idea of the atomic bomb as early as 1939 This is even before the US gets involved in the war Roosevelt doesnt want Germany to have this technology before the US so he begins putting money into the research and development of the ABomb In July of 1945 the first testing of the ABomb is made and the test is successful Many scientists want the bomb to be used as a warning on a deserted island instead of on the enemy This is not good from a military standpoint because there were only 3 bombs and after the test only 2 were left This was not going to happen from the military standpoint because the threat could possibly not work Truman is notified of the successfulness of the test and he orders that the bomb is dropped on Japan if they do not surrender by August 3 There is a declaration made from the US Great Britain and China that force will be taken against them if they do not surrenderand they do not oHiroshima and Nagasakion August 6 the first bomb is dropped on Hiroshima Hiroshima is chosen because it is the military headquarters of Japan and the arms headquarters of the country 60000 people die and a 4 square mile area is destroyed from the initial blast Japan still did not surrender so on August 9 the second bomb is dropped Approximately 36000 people died immediately after the second blast On August 14 the formal acceptance of the surrender is made In total of WWII 70 million people fought 17 million military deaths and 18 million civilian deaths Military expenditures worldwide reached 1 trillion dollars and property losses were counted at close to 2 trillion dollars The Soviet Union suffered the most from this and the US suffered the least The US was the only major power not to sustain major damages to its territory or its economy At the end of the war most Americans looked at the world very optimistically Most Americans favored US involvement in international affairsUnited Nations Origins of the Cold WaroGeorge Kennanwrote an article in Foreign Affairs that says the US needs to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union as a country and the expansion of Communism to any other countries Becomes known as the Containment Theory This containment policy becomes the basis for all foreign policies the US makes from the 1950s through the 1980s oThe Truman Doctrinein 1948 Truman charges the Soviet Union as taking ruthless force to try and take over European nations For the next few years until 1950 Truman talks about the Soviet Union as the greatest country in the slave nations Truman makes a statement about how the US needs to use its economic power to keep Communism at bay when trying to get money to aid Greece and Turkey This becomes known as the Truman Doctrine By 1950 Greece and Turkey become stable and Communism is sniffed out in their countriesoThe Marshall Planthe US then decides to give widespread economic aid to any countries in need Pumps 13 billion dollars into European recoveryoThe Berlin Airliftthe Iron Curtain is what they call the dividing line between the Communist Eastern European countries and the Capitalist Western European countries The split also divides the countries of Germany and Austria into a British zone a French zone a US zone and a Soviet zone The capital city of Berlin is also broken into an East and West section in which the West belongs to Britain France and the US and the East section belongs to the Soviet Union There is a supply corridor that connects West Germany to the Western half of Berlin The Soviet Union cuts off this access to West Berlin in an attempt to get the Western powers out of Berlin so Truman creates an airlift program that drops tons of supplies and food into West Berlin During this process East Berlin builds the Berlin wall to keep people from East Berlin from going into West Berlin The original plan was to create a unified Germany later on but this airlift only furthers the split between the two sides of the countryaNATOformed as a mutual defensive pact that considers an attack against any of the countries involved as an attack against all of the countries involved The Soviet Union creates the Warsaw Pact in opposition to NATO It had the same general concept as NATO so it endedup being a showdown of treaty organizations This polarization is what ultimately ends up being the Cold WaroChina and the bombyou finally have a China that is not being controlled by foreigners at this time There is no agreement however on what direction China should take as a country The Soviet Union creates an atomic bomb at this time This leads to the beginning of the arms race in which the US creates the Hydrogen Bomb and then the Soviet Union starts building up more and more arms until there is eventually enough explosive power to blowup the entire world many times overChiang KaiSheknationalist faction that believed that China should be connected to capitalism and the West Mao TseTung Zedongthe Communist leader that believed China should be a Communist country Take over all of mainland China The Peoples Republic of China that also claims and has control over all of ChinabKoreadivided into two sections at the end of the war much like Germany The idea was selfdetermination but the US again tries to beefup the Southern half of Korea in order to keep Communism out In June of 1950 North Korean forces cross the dividing line 38th parallel and come into the South They eventually get control over all of Korea except for a small UN run section at the bottom The US feels the need to try and stop the spread of Communism in Vietnam Korea and all of the other little small countries in Asia Beginning in 1950 the US starts sending troops into South Korea to push back the North Korean forces By January of 1951 ththe line had been pushed back to the 38 parallel McArthur ignores Trumans order of a ceasefire and instead threatens to takeover North Korea In 1953 the conflict is resolved by creating two separate countries in Korea Unlike Germany the Koreas are still divided nations 11911The Domestic Cold WarThe AntiCommunist ConsensusoHouse UnAmerican Committee HUACcongressional committee that investigated cases of radical activity including espionage communism and anything else deemed revolutionary or radicaloTruman and Liberal AntiCommunismone of the two tactics people believed should be used to deal with Communism Truman promoted this one and the Liberal part meant economic liberalism The problem with this plantactic is that it is very expensive and takes a lot out of the US economy There was also a concern that the biggest threat Communism posed to the US was not in foreign countries and therefore contained through foreign policy but in the US itself The policy didnt work in Korea or the Asian countries
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