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HIST 2057
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Postwar Economy Emergence of Consumer SocietyThursday April 03 308 PM 1Economic Growth Happened at the same time the Cold War was going on AExtentBoom began after WWII and lasted until the 1970sGNP increased 40Average income increased 30 this left out African and Native AmericansThis boom changed American culturecreated the society we live in today Americans had the highest standard of living Almost everyone owned homes cars TVs refrigerators dish washers and electric washersdryers This became the normThis changed most Americans mindset because they believed this prosperity would never end they were incredibly optimisticThe boom justified the Cold War since Americas economic system was 1 in the world ASourcesResearch and DevelopmentTook place especially in electronic industry The US invested millions of dollars to invent and perfect new products such asAerodynamics commercial airplane industry Chemicals synthetic rubberPharmaceuticals commercial medicine were developed during the war to help soldiersCommunications radar and sonarBy the end of WWII most people had electricity radios and TVsGovernment SpendingKeyness theory is correct deficit spending by government propelled the economyInterstate system began Its the biggest public works initiative in the history of the country It created hundreds of thousand of jobs and is still being built todayGI bill was funding so veterans could go to college It cost the government lots of moneyFederal housing administration1Baby BoomAmericans put getting married and having a family on hold during WWIIWhen soldiers came home from war couples started getting married and having children There was a dramatic increase in birthsThese babies needed things that helped the economy such as diapers strollers and an education1Position of US after warSU was invaded and lost 27 millionGermany was obliteratedJapan was bombedGreat Britain was bombedUS had no damage and was the only nation still standingOur industries grew bigger and we were the only big power left1Spending on the Cold WarThe defense industry boomed after WWIIThe US spent billions on defense industries such as the military air forceweapons 1Changing Patterns of WorkAPeople use to be farmers then they began working in factoriesBDuring WWII people worked in the defense industryCAfter WWII the service industry was createdsuch as hotels retailwaitressing 1Ways of Life in Consumer SocietyABackground1Consumer society disappeared during the great depression and WWII2Consumer society reemerged after WWII ALifestyle Changes1Rise of the Car No one could afford cars during great depression No cars were produced during WWIICar ownership increased after WWII 12 million cars were sold during the 4 years after warBy 1960s most Americans owned a carThe rise of the car lead to other lifestyle changes1Emergence of Suburbs By 1970s most Americans lived in suburbsCity populations decreasedSuburbs were the fastest growing thing after WWII because of the government housing administrationGovernment subsidies made it possibleCars made it possible to commute from the suburbs to the citiesLevitt invented mass produced housing that was extremely inexpensive He built thousands of the same houses but only sold to whitesAll houses and residents looked alikeAir conditioning was incorporated into housing1Shopping CentersMalls Shopping Centers emerged first There were only 8 in 1947by 1972 there were 13000 Shopping Mall was first built in Minnesota in 1946 because it was so coldThe idea of shopping indoors took off and were typically built near suburbs They played nice music had lighting food and were climate controlled1Consumer Credit Emerged after WWIIAmerican Express came out in the late 1950sVisa and MasterCard came out in the 1960s and let you roll over your balanceThey made consumption possible even if you had no moneyCreated massive consumer debt1Growth of Television TV was invented for the war before WWII there were no TVs except in labs It took off in late 1940s50s by 1960 about 50 million TVs had been sold90 of American homes had TVsInitially there were only 3 channels ABC NBCCBSProgramming had to be broadCommercials were used to advertiseMost TV shows were upbeat and white such as Leave it to Beaver Reconstruction 186518771Post Civil War Situation ASouth Defeated Confederated had fallenPresident Davis went to prison 260000 killed 20 of white male population hundreds wounded widows orphansMost of war took place in southEconomy was destroyed Agricultural crops were ruined cotton tobacco and sugar caneCities completely goneThe few industries the south had were destroyed13 of livestock was killedEach state had its own currency after war Confederate currency was worthless4 million slaves were freed worth 4 billion in investments ANorthVictorious but bitter about the war340000 Union troops killed 38000 African AmericansIndustries and economy boomed during civil warThey could make more guns and bombs with their industries during warControlled federal government the South was opposed to the federal governmentThey did things to benefit the NorthRaised the tariffs on imports to make them more expensive then domesticallymanufactured goodsCreated a national bank and currency based in the north 1Post Civil War Issues APoliticalWhats going to happen to the 11 states that left the UnionHow much power is the federal government going to have Will it stay strong or go back to being not as powerful such as before the civil warAWhats going to happen to the Souths political leaders Should they be hanged for treasonThe constitution doesnt say anything about this Economic1How and can the South recover1What will replace slavery Racial1What will happen to the 4 million exslavesWhat are the slaves status are they citizensWhite southerners wondered how and who would control the slaves they were worried 1Presidential Reconstruction 18621867 Requirements on South
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