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Final Exam Material

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HIST 2057
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FinalTestMaterialWorld War II continuedII Conceptions of the good warThe good warAThis war is very easy for Americans to justify and define the enemyThe US is very fortunate in the war as far as casualties go The US main land is also never bombedB Some problems1 Race war in the PacificThis very rapidly turned into a war against all people of Japanese decentPropaganda films portrayed all Japanese not just ones in the military as working together to take over the world Ex Know Your Enemy Japan There was also a propaganda campaign that always portrayed Japanese people as not human or subhuman This justifies a horrific level of violence in the Pacific It became very common for American soldier to take trophies from dead Japanese soldiers like earsAll Japanese were to leave the west cost and go to internment camps Around 120000 people of Japanese ancestry were forced to go to these camps 80000 of those people were American citizensthThis is in clear violation of the 5 Amendment of the Constitution When people sue the gov for this the Supreme Court rules that the importance of protecting the US from espionage out weighs the rights of the citizens2 HolocaustThe systematic plan by Hitler to eliminate the Jewish people and anyone else that were considered substandard Murdered 911 million people out of which 56 million were JewishBy the late 1930s the US became aware of rumors of the German mass murder of Jewish people but the immigration number was never raisedBy at least 1942 the US government was aware of the death camps The US public does not find out about this until the war ends Once the government found out about the death camps the US does nothing to its military plans to try to destroy these campsWWII does not become the war to end the Holocaust until the war is over3 War on civiliansTens of thousands of civilians were killed in Japan It I estimated that around 100000 civilians in Tokyo were killed during a few nights of incendiary bombing of the city4 Atomic bombDropped on Hiroshima and then Nagasaki Began bc Jewish physicists from Germany told Franklin Roosevelt about Germanys atomic project and then Roosevelt authorizes the Manhattan ProjectThe US was the only country in the world that could have made the atomic bomb during this time bc we had the scientific know how infrastructure and fundingThe atomic bomb is completed in 1945 By this time Roosevelt had died and Harry Truman is president The US had told the country that they must either surrender or face total devastation Truman authorized two atomic bombings of JapanDropping of these bombs was controversial at the time and remains controversial to this dayTruman and his planners justified dropping the atomic bombs bc they said that they had saved the lives of at least 100000 soldiers right after they dropped the bombs After the war was over Truman upped that number to a quarter of a million soldiers saved The problem with this is that historians cannot find any death estimates close to those numbersAnother problem with dropping the bombs was that it was obvious that Japan was inevitably going to surrenderThe second big reason for the bombs that historians come up with was that it was done to show the Soviet Union that the US is not to be messed with once the war endsThe first bomb was pretty easily justified as a military weapon The second bomb is a bigger issue When the second bomb is dropped it is clear that Japan would surrender The US did not give Japan enough time to fully comprehend that a city of 100000 people had been obliteratedIII Impact of war at homeAfrican AmericansAThe military industry refused to hire any African Americans A Phillip Randolph the head of a very large African American railroad union is upset by this He proposes a large march on Washington DC The march is organized but it never happens bc Roosevelt makes a deal with Randolph and passes the Fair Employment Practices Commission if you were on government contract you could not discriminate in hiring workersThe Double V Campaign two victories campaign came up with by black soldiers that said that the first victory was to defeat Hitler the next victory goal was to gain full citizenship rights when they return home What happens is that even though expectations are raised nothing really changes Military units are still segregated and blacks are usually limited to support roles Ex Many German POW camps in the US were down south and most of the guards at these camps were black A story that made the rounds is that after a day or work the guards and the prisoners tried to stop at a restaurant to eat The owner of the restaurant said that the German POWs were welcome but that the black guards would have to go around the back to eat bc they were not welcome in the restaurant
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