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HIST 2057 The Us 1865 To Pres FINAL CHEAT SHEET

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Louisiana State University
HIST 2057

Keystone speciesspecies that have a domino effect on the entire ecosystem Sea stars prey on sea urchins musselsother shellfish that have no other natural predators If the seas star is removed from the eco The mussel population explodes uncontrollably driving out other species while the urchin pop Kills coral reefsBio Mag concentration of chemicals increasing with the position in the food chain Large Mouthed bass mercury poisoning compared to smaller species down the food chain Adaptive Managementmanaging ecosystems within a given landscape in ways that enable rapid responses to changes in conditions To provide longterm eco Sustainability a certain ecological landscape is taken care of and watched constantly to make sure to respond effectively the Yap people of Micronesia to sustain high population densities in the face of resource scarcity for thousands of yearshave altered their environment creating for example coastal mangrove depressions and seagrass meadows to support fishing and termite resistant wood Nutrient Cycle nutrients are passed up the food chain Nutrition for the biodiverse is provided from each other Dependent on species before Cypresstupelo swamp mosquitobullfrogspotted gargreat egretamerican alligator ESA protects species that are either endangered threatened or at the point of being Species are watched and accounted for persistently and placed on a list protecting them from hunters or other human interruptions Useful in cons protects and restores biodiversity in this worl dinstead of ignoring HIPPO five major threats to biod Habitat destruction and fragmentation threatens unique coatal plain if too much is destroyed 136 by urban construction the unique landscape w 295 endemic plants 185 species 323 subspecies could be irreversible and greatly affected Invasive Species exclusion and displacement When an animal plant or microbe moves into a new area it can affect the resident species in several different ways New species can parasitize or predate upon residents hybridize with them compete with them for food bring unfamiliar diseases modify habitats or disrupt important interactions Alligator weed Degrades habitat and causes navigation difficulties Pollution affects the environment and ecosystem fossil fueled power stations emitting CO2 Population displacement and destruction increasing populations have lead to increasing threats to biodiversity Overharvesting This includes targeted hunting gathering or fishing for a particular species as well as incidental harvesting such as bycatch in ocean fisheriesoysters in the LA coast Producers plantsautotrophs largest biomassprimary consumers heterotrophsleast biomassherbivorestertiary consumersquartermary carn highestlowest energy as it goes up Energy in the ecosystem consumed by light from sunCO2to org compd by plants Herbivores consume plants for energy light energy to chem energy by plants nutrition Used up while going down food chain and is depleated with every consumer until lost 10 rule 10 of previous matter is consumed Some species cannot survive in certain climates hindering them from what they needPine Savannas most species rich habitat Redcockaded Woodpecker is dependent on Longleaf Pine forests and is now endangered John Muir developed the first public preserve most influential American conservationist petitioned the US Congress for the National Park bill that was passed in 1890 establishing Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks Teddy Roosevelt first conservationist president set up National Parks in the US Forest service Fishwildlifenational Park service Aldo Leopold wildlife conservation professor at he University of Wisconsin proposed economical well being could not be separated from the wellbeing of the env postulated that it was critical for people to have a close connection to our land Rachel Carson marine biologist in US beureuof fisheries later US FishWildlife service tested pesticides that mimic mercuryharm brown pelican egg shells by thinning them inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the US Environmental Protection Agency Ted Turnermedia mogul who has used his fortune for his own private conservation efforts largest landholder in US lands managed to partner economic viablility with ecological sustainabilitywith the focus on the restoration of endemic specis to large private US holdings Five stages related to food resources vailable food supply results in growth of human pops To numbers that are greater than those that can be supported by sustainable resourses Shortterm solution is intensified agriculture on narginal land using nonsustainable practices which results in further increases in numbers of people in the pop Longerterm consequenses include resources outside control of people climate change which causes food shortages Further decrease in pop From starvation migration war diseasedestroyed resources resulf causing pop Declines Eventually overthrown of government loss of cultural complexity and migrationresult in abandonment Tikopia Abundant rainfallModerate latitudewarm tropical env Location in that zone of Pacific with high fallout of ash from volcanoes and dust from Asiacreated fertile soils Freshwater swamp next to the inland bay is used to grow swamp taro micromanaged for continuous and sustainable food production of starchy foods Manufactured Doubt Launch a public relations campaign disputing the evidence Predict dire economic consequences and ignore the cost benefits Use nonpeer reviewed scientific publications or industryfunded scientists who dont publish original peerreviewed scientific work to support your point of view Trumpet discredited scientific studies and myths supporting your point of view as scientific fact Point to the substantial scientific uncertainty and the certainty of economic loss if immediate action is taken Use data from a local area to support your views and ignore the global evidence Disparage scientists saying they are playing up uncertain predictions of doom in order to get research fundingComplain that it is unfair to require regulatory action in the US as it would put the nation at an economic disadvantage compared to the rest of the world Claim that more research is needed before action should be taken Argue that it is less expensive to live with the effectsEast Antarctic Coolign Trend is linked to an increase in strength of the circumpolar westerliesThis can be traced to changes in the stratosphere These changes are due to photochemical ozone losses ie the ozone hole Substantial ozone losses did not occur until the late 1970s Only after this time does significant cooling begin in East Antarctica Consequesnces of Global Warming 2030 no glaciers in Glacier national Park collapse of ice shelves in Antarctica reduction of snow due to ice sheet collapse arctic ice cap melting 910 changes in sea level rise cause temp rise current projected sea level 2100 0518 meters above 1990 sea level Melting Greenland Ice Cap 67 meters above 1990 Melting Antarctiv Ice Cap 100 meters above 1990 Natural weather rhythms have become significantly disrupted over the past few years Frequency of extreme weather likely to increase Arctic greatest rising temps melting of sea ice sea ice extent in summer is declining rapidly thickness decresing melting of Tundra Permafrost habitat erosion release of trapped carbon 17 methane released is about 15 of total human effect on greenhouse gases Ecological Consequensesloss of habitat sea ice declines in open water tundrataiga declines as permafrost melts changes in environments disrupt food webs polarbearspenguins at top of marine food chains lose food resourses plants no linger have stable ground surface and reliable nutrients disturb dynamics population declines high arctic pops of large animals in rapid decline some as much as 98 over past few decades loss of suitable habitat for arctic caribou as permafrost melts increased winter snow pack reduces winter supply of mosses and lichens as food some low arctic pops such as migrating geese are inc as climate becomes more mild Marine Habitats loss of habitats coral reefs coral bleaching expelled from tissue dead coral skeleton covered in filamentous algae fueled by warm water 90 live in 30 C generalist algae as symbiotic partnersdisapprearance of Island Habitats and generation of new marine habitats landscapes and component ecosystems Acidification in oceans acids interfere with organisms that ue calcium to make shells and bone Sea butterflieslimacina helicina Antarctica in the southern ocean have been found with partlydissolved shells need calcium carbonate to build them more acidic ocean waters cause decreases in carbonate ions such decreases have been shown to deform deforemed shells reduce protection against predators and diseases windier climatesL more upwelling of water high in CO2 Charles Darwin predicted Some will go extict Golden Toads Pikas going Polar Bears going New Species Produced Chinese tallow trees in US from tallowin China some would adapt meadowlarks now breed earlier in spring migration patterns are changing Biota Changes mammals marmots ending hibernation 3 weeks earlier Canadian red squirrels breeding 18 days earlier red foxes spreading northward encroaching arctic foxes Sea Life loggerhead turtles laing eggs 10 days earlier than 15 years ago Tidal organisms barnacles mollusks snails found in warm southern waters moving northward many fish species moving northward to cooler waters Birds north American tree swallows laying eggs 9 days earlier than they did 40 years ago common murres breeding 24 days earlier than a decade ago Plants American flowering plants like columbines and wild geraniums are blooming earlier than before Red Queen Rules The environment is always changing Species adapt in a
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