Week 1 and 2 reconstruction and the rise of jim crow. After sweeping the elections of 1866, the radical republicans gained almost complete control over policymaking in congress. Republican allies, they gained control of the house of representatives and the senate. Reduced the secessionist states to little more than conquered territory, dividing them into five military districts, each governed by a union general. Congress declared martial law in the territories, dispatching troops to keep the peace and protect former slaves. Provided a more efficient government of the rebel states. Carpetbaggers were northerners who moved to the south to take advantage of the unstable social, financial, and political climate. Were southern whites who supported reconstruction and the republican party after the. Established in 1865 by congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the. South in the aftermath of the u. s. civil war.