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INTL 2000 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Rice, India, Economy Of Japan


Department
International Studies
Course Code
INTL 2000
Professor
C.Nicklen
Study Guide
Midterm

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INTL 2000

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Reversal of Fortune
I. Alternative Explanations
a. We are still looking at the questions of the Reversal of Fortune
b. Will take 2 separate approaches in this section
c. Military-Institutional-Technological based on “The Pursuit of Power” by William
McNeill
d. Geographic-Institutional based on “Guns, Germs, and Steel” by Jared Diamond
II. The Pursuit of Power
a. Argument in a nutshell: Military Technology has changed the way that we fight wars,
the way we fight wars changes how we organize our society
i. Technology dictates society
b. The situation is a bit more complicated than just that statement
c. I will walk you through his argument and course of history then examine a few things a
bit more in depth
d. Humans start out as hunter gatherers, learn to make swords and shields
e. Both Greek and Chinese civilization start out as small hold farmers, band together
i. Each man is his own defender, bunch of people get together and they go and
beat each other to death w/ swords and spears
f. Hoplites (citizen farmer soldiers) must fight together to create a proper phalanx, leads
to early political equality
i. Phalanx >> must trust the man on your left, he is going to be protecting you, bc
your shield is on your left
ii. Leads to people being considered equal
g. Chariot is invented
h. Requires more massed production, much more expensive to build and maintain
i. Leads to the rise of the aristocracy, who can afford to have chariots, centralized
authority, leads to empires
j. Romans add roads to the mix, greatly ups the tempo of war and need for central
authority
k. Saddle with stirrups allows you to shoot and fight from horseback directly, serves to
somewhat redemocratize society
l. Mongolian Hordes adopts this style greatly, break tradition empire
m. Crossbow- much easier to fight with, does not take much time to learn to use
n. Armored knights really expensive, requires much training, leads back to central
authority, Feudal system (knights swear together to protect their people and sworn to
another leader who organizes them into an effective fighting force, etc. until you reach
the king who has the direct authority of God to govern.)
o. Mass produced crossbows and gunpowder serve to counter the armored knights,
leads to greater democracy and professionalization of fighting force (city states and
mercenaries)
p. War becomes industrialized-leads to nationalism and massive warfare, citizen fights for
his country >> allows individual to have a stake in his country
q. Mechanized Warfare - takes it to a much higher level, involves economy to a much
greater extent
r. Airplanes globalized war
s. Nuclear weapons- change international system >> changes how nations interact with
one another, reduces the threat of war, polarizes the world around 2 opposing ideas
t. The big part of why China fails in this explanation: improper resource allocation
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u. China has centralized command economy
v. West has more of a free market
w. Goods are more efficiently able to be distributed
x. Institutions are key to success >> why China failed and why the West rose
y. The question, and arguments come from “where do institutions come from?”
i. McNeill says technology and war
ii. Diamond has a diff. answer
III. Guns, Germs, and Steel
a. Diamond’s work has been a huge popular hit
b. Originally started as a biologist, but has since become highly interdisciplinary
c. His explanation for where institutions come from: Geography
d. This idea is not all that dissimilar about colonialism (but I will show you where the
difference comes in)
e. Gaps in power and technology have emerged from environmental differences
f. The fact that Eurasia has been dominant is a geographic fluke, not due to any inherent
superiority
g. Not ingenuity driving it (specifically not institutional) but opportunity and necessity
h. Eurasians had better success creating agriculture due to better plants and animals being
available
i. Grains store and grow better than tropical fruit
j. This allows agriculture to take hold
k. Eurasia also has a single large landmass, leads to plenty of space to develop civilization
l. Plentiful food supply leads to division of labor
m. East-West orientation allows similar agriculture to take hold along entire axis
n. North-South oriented continents have to vary their agriculture along latitudes
o. Lack of heavy pathogens
p. Allows population to generally survive disease
q. See problems when they try to conquer central Africa >> don’t have immunities to the
diseases there
r. Diseases typically spread from immune westerners to indigenous populations
s. Europe was forced to interact with other cultures
t. China was able to isolate (were the world leader in ship building, Emperor banned it in
1432)
u. Europe had national balkanization, lead to competition
v. China was monolithic empire, only had to worry about fighting the Mongolians in the
north >> build a wall
w. Europe developed many ways to fight and govern much better (institutions driven by
geography)
IV. Critiques of Guns, Germs, and Steel
a. Eurocentric and determinist >> your geography is going to tell how you’re going to
develop
b. Does not account for possible change in institutions (more in a bit)
c. Attributes broadly technological innovations to Eurasia, when most were East Asian or
Middle East
d. No role for ideas (especially freedom, capitalism, individualism, republicanism,
rationality)
e. Really broad arguments
V. Geography or Institutions
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a. We are going to get a bit technical with thinking about theories for a bit
b. Going to look at how you prove causation
c. Pzreworski is our guide in this
d. Argument pretty much goes like this
e. Geography -> Institutions -> Development -> Current Situation
f. Where does causation really come in?
g. Must look at the counterfactual what did not happen
VI. Proving Causation
a. But we do not have data from the counterfactual
b. How do we get around this?
c. Instrumental Variables (2 Stage Least Squares)
d. But what about in a qualitative world?
e. We look for cases where there is a change in the institutions
f. Best example of this is James Mahoney “Colonialism and Post Colonial Development”
which was a bit of the guide for previous unit
VII. Questions to ponder
a. What is the best explanation for the reversal of fortune?
b. What plays a bigger role, geography or institutions?
Guns, Germs, and Steel Video
I. Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs and Steel
II. Papua New Guinea
a. “Why you white men have so much cargo, and we New Guineans have so little?”
III. Crops grown in U.S. are more nutritious and productive
a. Ex. Wheat
b. Not taro and bananas, did not have enough protein, crops rotted quickly
IV. Not many native animals for plowing, meat, fur, feces for fertilization, muscle power
V. 14 animals that have been successfully farmed come from Europe, Asia, and North Africa
a. Horses, camels, mules, sheep, yak, pigs, cattle
VI. Fertile Crescent home to the best crops and farm animals
VII. Free from the burden of farming (since there were more people) = new skills
VIII. No specialists >> no metal tools
IX. Fertile crescent
a. Climate too dry
b. Ecology too fragile
c. Overexploitation of environment
X. Those in the fertile crescent were able to prosper in the same latitude line
XI. Raw materials
XII. Ease of storage
XIII. Topological or climate barriers
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