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KIN 3502 (1)
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KIN 3502

Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 1. What is physical fitness? “A set of attributes or characteristics that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity.”  Health related—includes the components of physical fitness that have a relationship to good health  Sport/skill related—includes specialized components such as agility, speed, power, balance, coordination, and reaction time 2. Components of Health related physical fitness: Cardiorespiratory fitness: Ability of the circulatory and respiratory system to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity Body composition: The relative amounts of muscle, fat, bone, and other components Muscular strength: Ability of muscle to exert force Muscular endurance: Ability of muscle to continue to perform without fatigue Flexibility: Range of motion available at a joint 3. Measurements / Evaluation / Research - Evaluation/research is not possible without measurement - Measurement without evaluation/research is a waste of time and resources Measurement: –Collection of information –Determines the degree to which an individual possesses a specific characteristic –Involves defining the characteristic to be measured and selecting the instrument used to assess the characteristic Evaluation/Research: –Use of information gathered during measurement to make decisions/judgments 1) Collect suitable data (measurement) 2) Judge the value of these data according to some standard 3) Make decisions based on the data FUNCTION (evaluation/ research): to facilitate rational decisions Types of evaluation: Formative vs. Summative Population vs. Sample 4. Variables:  Any characteristic or condition that can assume different values Level of measurement: - Have two values (such as gender: male/female); - Several values (categories, such as the various religions); - Or be on a continuum (containing many values, including fractional ones).  Before variables can be measured, they must be defined. Theoretical definition: Gives the meaning of the word in terms of theories of the specific discipline. Operational definition: - Directly measured - Experimental  All research (except purely descriptive research) must have at least two variables - One can be IV and the other DV  In symmetrical relationships, the question of which is independent and which is dependent is moot  Active and Attribute Independent Variables 5. Types of Studies:  Quantitative vs. Qualitative  Correlation vs. Causation  Experiment vs. Observation 3 Criteria to establish cause and effect: 1) Cause must precede effect in time 2) Cause and effect must be correlated 3) Correlation between cause and effect cannot be explained by another variable Establishment of Causation: - Theoretical framework - Appropriate participants - Sound design - Select and control independent variables - Appropriate dependent measures - Correct statistics - Correct interpretation of results Not all measurements techniques are Equal: Objective: –2 or more people score the same test and assign similar scores –Criteria for scoring exist ‘outside’ the scorers Subjective: –Lacks standardized scoring system –Introduces a source of error GOAL: To be as objective as possible 33The Gold Standard, I.e. “True Measure” - Ideally the one test of the true measure - May not be a perfect test, but the best possible for a given variable - This test may not be done in all circumstances because of: - Expense - Time - Trained personnel - Risks Standards for evaluation:  Criterion-referenced - Has someone attained a specific level?  Norm-referenced - Judges an individuals performance in relation to others in a group Norm-referenced standards:  Test a large representative sample of a group - Descriptive statistics - Develop Standards - At 50th Percentile------Half the same scored higher / Half the sample scored lower - At 75th Percentile------75% scored below Criterion-referenced standards: - Predetermined level of performance - Not a continuous variable - Either/or (dichotomy) - Pass/Fail - Limitation: Finding a criterion that explicitly defines mastery Example of Criterion-referenced: - Fitness Gram - Olympic Qualifying Times BMI cut-off scores - Underweight = <18.5 - Normal weight = 18.5-24.9 - Overweight = 25-29.9 - Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater Chapters 2 and 3 Pre-assessment/ risk screening Pre-assessment screening reduces risk for: - Ourselves - Our agency - Our clients 1. Ethics in research: Why do we have ethics in research?  There are two areas of ethics that are particularly salient in social science research: - Human Subjects Protection, and Academic Integrity  Ethical considerations related to research are not specific – they apply to any professional setting The Risks of Exercise  Most HRPF assessments involve performing exercise - Exercise may increase the risk of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal injuries for those with previous injuries or related diseases  Knowledge of health status and history is crucial for optimizing safety of the client -Other risks might include psychological, financial 2. Informed Consent: - Relevant to testing, research, and treatment - Is a process that “when executed correctly, provides sufficient information about study procedures that the potential subject can make a reasoned decision about participation, based on an understanding of the potential risks and anticipated benefits (if any) of the study or assessment or treatment”  Write at a sixth-grade reading level;  Use simple, straightforward sentences;  Use commonly recognizable terms and measurement amounts;  Avoid the use of jargon or technical language; and explain terms that may not be easily understood  If non-English speaking subjects will be enrolled, plan to translate informed consent documents  If illiterate or visually-impaired subjects will be enrolled, plan to provide witnessed verbal translations of the informed consent document Essential elements of informed consent: -Purpose -Procedures -Risks and discomforts -Benefits -Responsibilities of the participant -Encouragement of questions -Explanation of data handling (confidentiality) -Ability to withdraw consent and stop the assessment at any time 3. Ethical Principles / Human subject protection: Ethical Principles - Underlying the federal regulations, state statutes, and University policies for human subject protection are three principles: - Autonomy - Beneficence - Justice - The principles are described in detail in a document known as the "Belmont Report." Autonomy: - Respect each individual's right to decide freely whether or not to participate Beneficence: - Attempt to "do good" or, conversely, "do no harm" Justice: - Access to research must be equitable, meaning that the risks of research should not disproportionately be borne by the disadvantaged and the benefits of research should not be reserved for the privileged. Beneficence vs. Risk:  One of the major concerns is to weigh potential risks against anticipated benefits - Potential risks should be minimized to the extent possible - All remaining risks should be justified in the context of the question to be studied Privacy vs. confidentiality  Anonymity vs. Confidentiality - Possible to conduct a study in which there will be no confidentiality (e.g., an oral history project - Investigators must disclose to subjects any limits of confidentiality that reasonably can be expected Certification of Confidentiality:  When the question under study requires subjects to reveal highly sensitive information, such as criminal behavior, investigators can apply to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for a Certificate of confidentiality, which will protect the data even from a subpoena. Justice vs. Equality: - Access to the benefits and risks of research has not always been equitable - Historically, the risks of research have been borne disproportionately by the disadvantaged and the benefits of access to research have been reserved for the very privileged - Define inclusion and exclusion criteria for subjects in such a way that allows equitable access Deception: Must be justified: - There must be no other viable method of answering the research question - The research question must be of sufficient importance to justify deception - Participants must be debriefed Vulnerable populations:  Federal regulations require more rigorous protection of human subject populations that are considered especially vulnerable. -Minors -Prisoners or other incarcerated persons -Pregnant women and fetuses -Cognitively impaired persons.  Elderly subjects are not presumed to be especially vulnerable unless exhibiting cognitive impairments. Academic Integrity: - Plagiarism - Falsifying data - Biases 3. Screening: Reasons for:  To identify those with a medical contraindication (exclusion) to performing specific HRPF assessments  To identify those who should receive a medical evaluation before performing specific HRPF assessments  To identify those who should only perform assessments administered by professionals with clinical experience  To identify those with other health risk/medical concerns that may influence decision to perform assessments Screening procedures:  Must precede the HRPF test process  Gathering a client’s demographic and health related information - Health risk/medical history  Dynamic process - Question about factors identified on history Health History questionnaire: Assess a client’s: - Coronary risk factors - Past history of chronic diseases and illness - History of surgeries or injuries - Past and present health behaviors and habits - Current use of any medications Risk stratification:  Divide clients into strata based on health risk -Low -Moderate -High  Determine appropriate course of action regarding exercise testing - Need for physical examination (prior to) - Depends on level of exercise intensity Factors used in Risk Stratification: Positive risk factors: - Age - Family history - Cigarette smoking - Sedentary lifestyle - Obesity - Hypertension - Dyslipidemia - Prediabetes Negative risk factor: - High serum HDL cholesterol Blood Glucose: Standards set by the American Diabetes Association: - Prediabetes risk factor = 100–125 mg/dL - Normal values <100 mg/dL - Diagnostic of diabetes = 126 mg/dL or greater Contraindications for exercise testing: Absolute: - Never Relative: - Depends on circumstance Flexibility Flexibility:  The functional capacity of the joinedts to move through a full range of motion (ROM) - An intrinsic property of the body tissues that determines the range of motion achievable without injury at a joint or group of joints (Thacker et al, 2004).  Gold standard—laboratory assessment of the ROM of a specific joint Why is flexibility important?  Facilitates activities of daily living  Adequate lower back and hip flexibility may decrease likelihood of lower back pain  Differences in ROM between left and right sides may indicate/precipitate musclo-skeletal problems  Extremes of flexibility and inflexibility increase risk of sport- related injury (Thacker et al., 2004) Factors influencing flexibility:  -Age  -Gender  -Previous joint injury  -Specific disease (i.e. arthritis) Unique assessment principles:  Hundreds of different joints in the human body  Specificity—flexibility is individualized for each joint - This eliminates the possibility of a singular test  Warm-up—necessary before assessing flexibility - Whole-body aerobic exercises - Passive stretching and ROM exercises Methods of Measurement:  Visual measurements  Changes in distance  Device measurement--- Assesses ROM - Goniometer: most common device used Distance Tests: Sit and reach: - Most widely used flexibility test in physical fitness programs - Theorized association of poor flexibility with low-back pain and injury Lumbar flexion: - Seated with pelvis stabilized - Tape is positioned with zero at the spinous process C7 - Measure down the SI - Lumbar flexion performed until first sign of resistance - Average healthy range: 4-inch increase Lumbar extension: - Same body and tape position as for flexion assessment - Lumbar extension is performed until first sign of resistance - Average healthy range:  2-inch increase Range of Motion (ROM): The amount of available motion, or arc of motion, that occurs at a specific joint  Assessed with body at anatomic start position: - Body set at 0 degrees of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction - Can be assessed actively or passively - HRPF assessments are always active PHYSICAL ACTIVITY What is physical activity?  Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle that results in caloric expenditure  Physical activity also involves a behavioral component -Voluntary Exercise vs. Physical activity Physical activity- any movement Exercise:  Planned  Involving structure
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