Chapter 3

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Louisiana State University
Nutrition and Food Services
NFS 2000

Chapter 3Human Nutrition and FoodsProper NutritionMaking the Right Food ChoicesNutrition is the study of foods and their contribution to health and diseaseoProper nutrition implies an adequate and balanced consumption of foodoEssential nutrients are those that must be obtained from food because the body can not synthesize themNutrient categoriesoMacronutrientsprotein carbohydrate lipidoMicronutrientsvitamins and mineralsoPhytonutrientsPolyphenolicsFunctions of nutrients are tooForm body structures eg muscleoServe as regulators eg enzymes hormonesoProvide energyMalnutrition implies an imbalance too much or too little of an essential nutrientThe Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide PyramidThe Dietary Guidelines for Americans first published in 1980 by USDA and DHH and revised every ten yearsProvides recommendations for the promotion of health and prevention of chronic diseasesThe Food Guide Pyramid by USDA is a tool to illustrate the Dietary GuidelinesDigestion Absorption and Transport of FoodsNutrition is accomplished through the metabolic processes of the body after the food is consumedDigestionoDigestion is accomplished for the most part by digestive enzymes which are responsible for the breakdown hydrolysis of the major food componentsThey include amylase that breaks starch peptidase that breaks protein and lipase that breaks lipidsoBioavailability is the degree to which a nutrient is digested and absorbed by the bodyCan be influenced by a large number of factors such as nutrient interactions drug interactions chemical form solubility etcFigure 32AbsorptionoAbsorption is the passage of nutrients from the digestive tract to the blood stream facilitated by the mucosal cells of the intestine and occurs bySimple diffusionsmall lipidswater cross freely into mucosal cellsFacilitated diffusiona carrier is used to transport watersoluble vitamins to transport them to mucosal cells
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