Chapter 2

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Louisiana State University
Nutrition and Food Services
NFS 2000

Chapter 2 Food Categories and CompositionFood Composition TablesCompositionthe substances or components found in a food or beverageFood scientists have developed tables that depict the composition of a wide variety of foodoIncludes fat protein carbs water vitamins mineralsThe USDA maintains a database of these tablesohttpwwwarsusdagovmainsitemainhtmmodeocode12354500By using these tables individuals can compare many different food for their nutritional contentFood Categoriesthe Food Guide PyramidCommoditiesuseful consumer goods of agricultural origin generally referring to raw productsUSDA lists 14 commodities some are processed foodoRed meats poultry fish and shellfish eggs dairy products beverage milks fats and oils fruits fresh canned dried frozen juices vegetables fresh anned dried frozen pulses shelled peanuts and tree nuts flour and cerealProcessed commoditiesvalueadded commodities derived from agricultural commodities that offer convenience longer shelf life and sometimes added nutrientsNutritionists and food scientists generally consider foods in a similar manner for major categories but differ slightly in regard to minor constituentsoNutritionists are primarily focused on the nutrient content of the commodityoHow much of various commodities should be consumed to obtain proper nutritionThe food guide pyramid does include some processed foods such as processed meat dairy and cereal products but does not include consideration for additivesoEx stabilizers emulsifiers flavors preservatives etcFood scientists must factor in additive in order to assess their functional contribution to food productsServing SizeIn addition to composition we must also take into account the serving size in order to calculate nutrient intakeoFood Guide Pyramid recommends quantity of food which is specified on product labelsoFood composition tables use measurementshttpwwwmypyramidgovmilkcountstablehtmlServing size is dependent on the particular food item and generally reflects the amount that is normally consumedNutrition Labeling and Education Act
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