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Philosophy 2025 Final Exam Study Guide (got 96%)

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PHIL 2025
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Philosophy 2025 Bioethics Final Exam Study Guide1Name the two oldest principles of bioethicsaDo goodbDo no harm2Good ethics begins withaGood facts3What decade was the pinnacle of bioethicsa1970sQuinlan Cruzan Dax Cowart Tuskegee all came out around 1970s4What is the Consequentialist Theory approachaDoesnt matter how you get there the consequences determine if an action is good its the outcome that matters maximizing the good5What is the Deontologist Theory approachaDeontologist Greek word deon dutyConcerned with doing your duty the right thing regardless of consequences Following rulesiThy shall not steal thy shall not kill6What is the Divine Command Theory approachaDivine Command TheoryMorality is somehow dependent upon God and moral obligation consists in obedience to Gods commands Basically you do what God tells you to7What are the two formulations of Kants Categorical ImperativeaI ought never to act except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim become a universal lawiUniversal law means everyone must act that way so if you say its okay to lie it must always be okay to liebOne must act to treat every person as an end and never as a means only8What is the Social Contact Theory approachaSocial Contract TheoryA persons moral andor political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they livebRolfsen says we dont use this much9What is the Utilitarianism Theory approachaUtilitiariansimGreatest goodTypetextTypetextTypetextbAct to obtain the greatest good for greatest number of people Best Outcome for the most peoplecThis is used a lot in public health ethics10What is the Communitarianism Theory approachaCommunitarianismAll ethics derive from communal values traditions loyalties social nature of life and institutionsAct in the best interest of the community as determined by those values Thus the community decides what to do11What is John Rawls Theory of JusticeaTheory of JusticeThought experiment where you are in the original position before you are born with no idea what youre going to be like or your place in society ie richpoor manwoman tallshort blackwhite handicap then behind a veil of ignorance you can agree upon principles of justice independently of personal interest meaning impartially and rationally and create a rule of society in your best interest that is socially fair to make sure everyone gets a fair shake12What are the 5 steps in CasuistryaDescribe case in detail including specific circumstancesi32 year old terminal cancer etcbIdentify maximsiRules that need to be followedthy shall not killcIdentify paradigm casesiSimilar cases that are apparently right or wrongdReflect on prior opinionsiUse opinions and decisions from an earlier caseeVerdictResolution13What is Reflective Equilibriumathe endpoint of a deliberative process inwhich we reflect on and revise our beliefs about an area of inquirybLook at an ethical situation think about the multiple points of view you can look at it is it ethical Utilitarian deontology autonomy justice then come to a reflective equilibrium
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