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Midterm 3 Notes

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Louisiana State University
Physical Science
PHSC 1002

The GeosphereGeospherethe solid parts of the EarthThe geosphere is composed of rocks rocks are made from minerals and minerals are made from elements98 of the Earths mass is made of just 8 elementsDistribution of ElementsWhile only a few elements make up most of the Earth they are not evenly distributed throughoutWhen Earth was young elements were evenly distributed as it built up mass nebular theoryAs the Earth became hotter the heavier elements sunk towards the core Fe while the lighter elements OSi rose to the surfaceMineralsThey are naturally occurring formed naturally rather than manufacturedThey are crystalline solidsoThey have an orderly and repeating arrangement of atoms ions andor moleculesThey have specific chemical composition with slight variationsThey are inorganic Were not made through biologic processesMineral and Chemical NamesMineral names usually differ from the chemical names for the same compoundsGeology and chemistry developed independent of each otherMineral PropertiesMinerals are classified by their chemical composition and crystalline structureoChemical CompositionEach mineral type has the same basic chemical compositionPhysical Properties of MineralsPhysical properties are an expression of chemical composition and internal crystal structureoCrystal fromoHardnessoCleavage and fractureoColoroDensityProperties Crystal FormCrystallization is the formation and growth of a solid from a liquid or gasoAtoms come together in specific chemical compositions and geometric arrangementsoThe combination of chemical composition and arrangement of atoms in an internal structure makes each mineral uniqueoMany minerals are identifiable Properties HardnessHardness is the resistance of the mineral to scratching oHardness is dependent on the strength of a minerals chemical bondsoBond strength is determined by ionic charge atom or ion size and packingoThe Mohs scale comparesProperties Cleavage and FractureCleavage is the property of a mineral to break along planes of weaknessoPlanes of weakness are determined by crystal structure and bond strengthFracture occurs in minerals where bonds strength is generally the same in all directionsoMinerals that fracture do not exhibit cleavageProperties ColorColor is an obvious feature for many minerals but it is not reliable for mineral identificationoChemical impurities can change a minerals coloroA mineral may occur in many color variations or be colorlessStreak is the color of a mineral in its powdered fromoSamples of the same mineral may have different color but the streak is always the sameProperties DensityDensity is the ratio of a minerals mass to its volumeIn simple terms it is how heavy a mineral feels for its sizeClassification of RockForming Minerals2 main classificationsoSilicates90 of Earths crustMade up of silicon Si and oxygen O atoms along with otherSilicatesSilicates are further divided into 2 groupsoFerromagnesianContains the iron Fe andor magnesium Mg
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