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Midterm 3 Cheat Sheet

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Physical Science
PHSC 1002
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Geosphere The solid parts of the Earth composed of rocks Made from minerals made from elements98of Earths mass is from just 8 elementsMinerals Naturally occurring crystalline solids specific chemical composition inorganicClassified by chemical composition and crystal structurePhysical PropertiesCrystal FormCrystallizationformation of solid from liquidgas Polymorphssame compdifferent structure Hardnessresistance to scratching dependent on bond strength Mohs Scale 110 10 being DiamondCleavageProperty of mineral to break along plane of weaknessFractureBond strength is equal in all directions Conchoidal is smooth and curved broken glassColorObvious feature but not reliable for identification RELIABLESTREAK powderedDensitymassvolumeSilicatesFerromagnesian Fe andor Mg Nonferromagnesian Neither Fe nor Mg50 of Earths crustNonsilicates 8 of earths crustCarbonates most abundant sulfates and halidesNONMETALLIC Oxides and SulfidesMETALLICPhosphatesAgricultureMinerals form through crystallizationMagmabecomes depleted of minerals as they crystallize Waterbecomes more concentrated of minerals as evaporatesFirst minerals to crystallize are those with HIGH melting points and LOW silicaVICE VERSA Carbonates composed mostly of calcium carbonate precipitated inorganically or biologicallyEvaporites Precipitation of seawater or salty lakesLow solubility minerals precipitate firstVICE VERSARocksIgneouscooling and crystallization of magma or lavaSedimentarypreexisting rocks subjected to weathering and erosionMetamorphicformed from preexisting rock transformed by heat psi and chemical fluidsBody Wavescan travel in every direction in the EarthP waves Longitudinal wave fastS waves Transverse wave slower only through solidsSurface Wavestravel only on the surface on the EarthLove waves side to sideRayleigh waves up and down rollingWaves can be reflected or refracted denser mediumfaster speedslower speedmore bendingInner coreSolid due to pressureOuter coreflow of liquid powers magnetic fieldMantle84 of Earths volumeLowerUpper asthenosphereLithospherecrustOceanic Crust is denser than Continental crustGlacial striationgouges glacier create as they move over landPaleomagnetismconclusive proof that the continents were being moved aroundPlate tectonicsunifying theory that explains dramatic changing surfaces features of the EarthDivergent Magma generation and lithosphere formation Convergent Magma generation and lithosphere destructionTransformNOTATwo methods of dating rockRelative datingrelative age the ordering of rocks in sequence by comparative agesRadiometric datingabsolute age actual age of rock determined in a laboratoryRelative dating the ordering of rocks in sequence by their comparative agesUniformitarianism logic behind relative dating based on the assumption that Earths geology is the result of slow processes over long periods of timeAssumes that natural laws have been constant throughout geologic historyOriginal horizontality layers of rock are deposited horizontally over old layersAny tilting or folding occurred after the rock was createdSuperposition each layer is older than the one above it and younger than the one below itCrosscutting relationships anything that cuts across layers of rock is younger than those layersInclusions any inclusion is older than the rock containing it Incl
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