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Exam 2

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Political Science
POLI 1001
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Exam 2February 29 ITypes of StatementsaNormative statement means a statement of value you ought to be doing this This type of statement is difficult to verifybEmpirical statement a statement of fact or what is It is verifiable we must be able to test it see feel hear etc Not always fact There is a misconception that the world is filled with factsprobabilityIIJusticeaDefinition trying to put a logical defense on what is fair trying to decide what people deserveneed is in the normative realmbPolitics as political science a combination of normative and empirical who gets what when why and howcAristotles notions of justiceiHappiness the pursuit of virtue the good part of the soul is the rational partthe memoryiiHe asks what is a virtuous action1An act of a certain king goodbad2The agent of the act knows what heshe is doing3The agent has chosen to do the act4The act was chosen for its own sake did it for the sake of doing itnot for the reward5Must spring from an unchanging character the act is not out of the ordinary for the person who is actingiiiAristotles notions of justice is critical in the development of our politics1When a crime happens we ant to know who did it their motive why and how they did it These are called external particularities whohow and internal particularities why We want to know both so e can decided the correct verdict This comes straight from AristotleaRetributive Justice root of the word is retribution revenge So who wants revenge in todays politics The state The effected parties do not have a say in the verdict but do in the prosecution It is the state vs accused It may not be satisfying to the effected This is why we are able to testify tribal The state is very rational in their decisionivAristotle knew that it was a lot to ask to follow his rules of virtue He gave us a clue to judging whether an act is right or not the mean At the time of Aristotle a lot of emphasis was placed on the value of things1The meanthe avoidance of excess extremes and deficiency Excess leads to recklessness and deficiency leads to cowardice He talked of the mean by saying we need to find the middle of the circle but avoid what is pleasant to usvSophrosyne one has the knowledge of ones weaknesses and strengths We need to know our limitations and possibilities It is our capacity for selfrestraint Actions of this are actions of proportionality and balance Aristotle says this is right reason He also says that not everything adheres to the mean or Sophrosyne but most everything does1Sophocles speaks of human beings as spiders in the middle of a web being tugged in every direction how we respond to the tugs determines our actionsMarch 2 IMore on justice and AristotleaBecause justice requires some idea of values Aristotle required his students to study ethics first if you dont know the fundamentals you cannot speak intelligently about issues of politics justice There were 2 types of justice spoken about by AristotleiGeneral justice righteousness Aristotle speaks about virtue in two ways1Virtues that regulate proper justice to others2Virtue that regulates proper conduct to oneselfIn sum Aristotle says that justice is a state of character His other definition of justice is one that obeys the law and treats others fairly Finally he says that general justice is the sum of all virtuesiiPartialParticular justice1Distributive justice all abut how a society decides to distribute their resources A society must askanswer questions about distribution constantly2Retributive justice has to do with the wrongs done and solving these wrongs The point of this justice is to restore the imbalance that is caused by the wrong This justice is divided into criminal and civil Some people argue that you can judge a society by how safe the streets areIn both instances values are involvedMarch 5 IDistributiveRetributive justiceaWe decided what we likedont like and politics also decides questions of distribution All societies make decisions about distribution but few ask
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