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Political Science
POLI 1001
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Notes 11Axial MomentAgeaPhrase used by one of the fathers of existentialism Karl JaspersiThe axial age is the spiritual process that took place between 800 and 200 BC It was then that the man that we live with today was createdbWhat occurs in this age is important iPivotal moment in the development of human consciousness2The Rise of SubjectivityaPrior to this moment humans lived in gatherings where there was no concept of I but only we This is known as tribalism human consciousness driven by the notion of we We exist not I bSomewhere in the Axial Age emerges the concept of I or self Also they became aware of you This is called Awareness or Consciousness of Self and Others3How WhyaWe do not exactly know how One example of how it happened A huntergatherer begins to wonder why he does not get more reward for being the best huntergatherer in the tribe He is focusing on himself not the tribe as a whole4The Creation of Political ConsciousnessaWith this comes a change in human affairs The person who is thinking of the I feels discomfort as if heshe has lost something such as a sense of security and belonging This is why Jaspers describes this as the homeless spirit This new awareness of self causes estrangement The estrangement makes them create and new home This process of creating a new home is called Political ConsciousnessbThe person who is focusing on him or herself rationally deliberately and self consciously attempts to create a moral order a legal order A new species of politics is created Individuated Species5Individuated SpeciesaIn a tribe there is no need for structured law they act on instinct When the tribe is gone there is a felt need for a structured written lawbThe tribal impulse is still with us today For example university is about learning about yourself AND otherscWith Subjectivity comes individual rights and what we think we owe to each otherdIndividuated Politicssecond species of politics This new species is tribal AND individuated6Tribal Species TraitsaWebRelationships are based on kinshipbloodcGovernment is based on instinct and customiWho governs He who is strongestwisestdThere is something sacred about relationships in this specieseThey live in villagesfThe structure of consciousness is called mythosiWe are an oral people we tell stories The sacred stories tell fundamental truths They are mythsstories about fundamental truthsgKnown as the premodern society7Individuated Species TraitsaIbThe individual is keycRelationships are called associations and are not sacreddWe live in citieseWe order ourselves by means of reason and lawfThis society is called logosmeans reason and lawgWe are literatewe write and read the language8Nation StateaThe primary unit of politics in the contemporary world is the nation stateiA nation is a people with a common race culture ethnicity etc this people are conscious of that identity This is very tribal and takes form in patriotism and nationalismiiA state is a people in a territory with a government that possesses sovereignty It is individuatediiiNationpeople common culture ethnicity identificationivStatepeople territory government sovereigntybIt is possible to have a state with more than one nation in it Canada is one state with many different nations Nations and nationalism still exist9Nation TribalaStrengthsiGives a sense of belonging as identityiiTribalism represents the social nature of our beingiiiIt affords us protections and securitybWeaknessesiEthnocentrismtaking our ethnic cultural identity and making it the centerpiece for everything and this leads to the out group in group phenom iiLack of respect for diversity and individualitythis leads to genocide10State individuated aStrengthsiIt is rational ordered and efficientiiThere is individual accountabilitybWeaknessesiCan be too impersonal bureaucratic and technocraticiiSo much focus on the procedures that the individual gets forgotteniiiThere is an overabundance of rules and implication of these rulesGreek Tragedy
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