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[PSYC 2000] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 45 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2000
Professor
Greening
Study Guide
Final

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LSU
PSYC 2000
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology
1. What defines psychology as a field of study, and what the psychology’s four primary goals?
a. Psychologists study not only what people and animals do, but also what happens in their
bodies as they do it
b. Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes
i. Behavior: includes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as talking,
facial expressions, and movement
ii. Mental processes: refers to all the internal, covert (hidden) activity of our minds,
such as thinking, feeling, and remembering
c. Why scientific?
i. In order to study the behavior of humans and animals, researchers must observe
them; psychologists don’t want to let biases cause faulty observations, so they use
scientific method to study psychology
d. Psychology’s Goals
i. Goals specifically aimed at uncovering the mysteries of human/animal behavior:
1. Description, explanation, prediction, and control
ii. Description: what is happening?
1. Involves observing a behavior and noting everything about it: what is
happening, where it happens, to whom it happens, and under what
circumstances
iii. Explanation: Why is it happening?
1. Theory: a general explanation of a set of observations or facts
2. Description observations build theory
iv. Prediction: When will it happen again?
1. What will happen in the future
v. Control: How can it be changed?
1. The focus on control is to change a behavior from an undesirable one to a
desirable one
e. Psychology Then: The History of Psychology
i. Relatively new field in the realm of the sciences, 135 years old
1. Philosophers: people who seek wisdom and knowledge through thinking and
discussion
2. Physiologists: scientists who study the physical workings of the body and its
systems
ii. Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes
1. Tried to understand or explain the human mind and its connection to the
physical body
iii. Medical Doctors and Physiologists
1. Wondered about the physical connection between the body and brain
a. Gustav Fechner: credited with performing some of the first scientific
experiments that would from a bias fro experimentation in
psychology with his studies of perception
b. Hermann von Helmholtz: performed ground braking experiments in
visual and auditory perception
2. Who were some of the earlier pioneers in psychology, and how did structuralism and
functionalism differ?
a. Started to come together in a laboratory in Leipzig, Germany
i. Wilhelm Wundt (physiologist): attempted to apply scientific principles to the study
of the human mind; father of psychology
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1. Objective introspection: the process of objectively examining and measuring
one’s owns thoughts and mental activities
a. Objectivity: expressing or dealing with facts or conditions as they are
without allowing the influence of personal feelings, prejudices, or
interpretations
ii. Titchener and structuralism in America
1. Wundt’s students, an Englishman, who eventually took Wundt’s ideas to
Cornell University in NY
a. Structuralism: structure of the mind; every experience could be
broken down into its individual emotions and sensations
2. He also believed that objective introspection could be used on thoughts as
well as on physical sensations
3. Margaret F. Washburn: Tichener’s only graduate for that year; published a
book on animal behavior that was considered and important work in that era
of psychology, The Animal Mind
iii. William James and Functionalism
1. Harvard was the first university in America to offer classes in psychology
taught by William James
2. Wrote a textbook, Principles of Psychology
3. James was more interested in the importance of consciousness to everyday
life rather than just its analysis
a. Functionalism: how the mind allows people to function in the real
world
b. Heavily influenced by Darwin
4. Mary Whiton Calkins: one of James’ early students who completed every
course and requirement for a Ph.D but was denied it by Harvard because she
was a woman
5. Women were not the only minority
a. Francis Cecil Sumner: became the first African American to ear a Ph.D.
in psychology at Clark University became the chair of psychology
department at Howard University known t many as the father of
African American Psychology
6. Kenneth and Mamie Clark: worked to show the negative effects of school
segregation on African American children
7. George Sanchez: Hispanic psychologist conducted research in the area of
intelligence testing, focusing on the cultural biases in such tests
8. Education psychology: studying the application of psychological concepts of
education
9. Industrial/organizational psychology: studying the application of
psychological concepts to businesses, organizations, and industry
3. Gestalt Psychology: The Whole is Greater than the sum of its Parts
a. Max Wertheimer: objected the structuralist point of view
i. He believed that psychological events such as perceiving and sensing could not be
broken down into smaller elements and still be understood; perception can only be
understood as a whole
1. Perceiving: becoming aware of something through senses
2. Sensing: seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, or something
ii. Him and other devoted their efforts to studying sensation and perception in this
new perspective, GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY
1. Gestalt, German word, meaning an organized whole
2. Today, Gestalt ideas are part of the study of cognitive psychology
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