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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2000

Psychology FINAL Study Guide1Defense mechanisms Egos tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality1Repression Basic defense mechanism that banishes anxietyarousing feelings thoughts and memories from consciousness2Regression An individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated3Reaction Formation The ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites People may express the opposite of what they are actually feeling4Projection People disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others5Rationalization Offers selfjustifying explanations in place of the real more threatening unconscious reasons for ones actions6Displacement Shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet7Denial People refuse to believe or even perceive painful realitiesAll these mechanisms are consequence of the ego defending itself against anxiety2Id Ego Super EgoIdPleasure Principle Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that according to Freud strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives oDemands immediate gratificationEgoReality Principle Operated on the reality principle satisfying the ids desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than painSuperego Part of the personality that represents internal idealized ideals and provides standards for judgment the conscience and for future aspirationsoItswhatmakesusfeelprideorguiltStrong superegovirtuous and guiltriddenWeak superegoselfindulgent and remorseless3Freuds theory of personality and psychosexual stagesPsychoanalysis Freuds theory of personality and the associated treatment techniquesFree Association He told a patient to relax and say whatever came to mind Freud assumed that a line of mental dominoes had fallen from his patients distant past to their troubled present Free association will allow him to retrace that line 1Psychology FINAL Study Guideand lead him to the patients unconscious memories often from childhood and could retrieve and release themFreud believed that even though we are not consciously aware of some of these troublesome feelings and ideas they definitely have a great influence on us The work we choose the beliefs we hold our daily habits or troubling symptomsFreud believed the content of dreams is a censored expression of the dreamers unconscious wishesFreuds theory treated humans as robots no feelings or thoughts just apparatusFreuds Psychosexual StagesOral 018 months pleasure centers on mouthsucking bitting chewingAnal 1836 months pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder eliminations coping with demands of control potty trainingPhallic 36 years pleasure zone if the genitals coping with incestuous sexual feelingsiOedipus complex A boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival fatheriiElectra complex A girl imitates her mothers behavior to get the love and affection from her father Compete with her mother by following her stepsLatency 6 to puberty dormant sexual feelingsGenital puberty on maturation of sexual interests feelings loosing virginity etcigender identity sense of being male or female relations with caregivers influence our identity personality and frailtiesiifixation failing to overcome a stage1orally will have smoking or chewing habits2anal will become very controlling and perfectionist3anal explosive reckless disorganized no controlFreuds psychoanalytic theory rests on repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mindoModern research shows that when trauma occurs repression is not what happens instead the painful memories keep coming back4Humanistic perspectiveFreuds theory treated humans as robots no feelings or thoughts just apparatus2
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