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Ch 12

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PSYC 2000
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Ch 12Motivation factors that activate direct maintain behavior toward a goalEmotion subjective feeling that includes arousal cognitions and expressionsTheories of Motivation1Instincts specific inborn behavior patterns characteristic of an entire species aReasons this theory fell out of favoriMost important behavior is learned iiHuman behavior is rarely rigid inflexible unchanging and found throughout the entire species iiiLinking every conceivable human behavior to a corresponding instinct explains nothing 2Drive reduction theory behavior aimed at reducing a state of bodily tension arousal and returning organism to homeostasis balance aDrive state of tension or arousal that motivates behavior bPrimary drives unlearned found in all animals motivate behavior vital to survival of individual species cSecondary drives learned drives not based on a physiological statedDrive reduction theory implies that if able people would spend as much time as possible at rest3Arousal theory each individual has an optimum level of arousal varies from one situation to next and over course of the dayaArousal refers to a state of alertness bWhether arousal theory can account for certain forms of stimulation is unclear cZuckerman sensation seeking is a basic motivation that varies greatly from person to person 4Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsaThought of needs and motivation as a pyramid higher needs only come into focus once all lower needs are mainly or entirely satisfiedbDeficiency needs iPhysiological needs eat sleep drinkiiSafety needsiiiLovebelonging needsivEsteem needs vBeing needs 1Selfactualization need to make the most of unique abilities aCharacteristics of selfactualizing peopleiEmbrace factsrealities of worldiiAre spontaneous in their ideas and actionsiiicreativeivare interested in solving problems
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