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Ch 11

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2000

Chapter 11 Gender and Human SexualityIntro David Reimer AKA BruceBrenda AKA JohnJoan while trying to be circumsized his penis was removed Dr John Money said gender was moldable He told them to reassign his gender He reported this as a success It was flawed Most of human functioning has a gendered cast Sex biological status of being male or female Intersex difficult to tell of they are female or maleGenetically and hormonally determined 25 months after conception is a critical period If male fetuses are exposed to excessive estrogens as a young child he is excessively feminine Gender Identity internal sense of being male or femaleGender Role social categories of male and female Theories of Gender Role Development 1MoneyErhardts Biosocial Theory interplay of biology and social experiences aBiology born male or femalebSocial factors how people treat youcBiology pubertylooking more male or female 2Social Learning theory Bandura and Mischel Gender role instruction is no different from any other kind of social learning aDirect tuition AKA differential reinforcement we are rewarded when we behave in gender appropriate way bObservational learning3CognitiveDevelopmental TheoryaChildren have to reach a level where they form a gender identity bActively socialize themselves 4Gender Schema Theory networks of gender information that color perceptionsshape behaviors5Evolutionary Approach natural selection and adaptation as major determinants of social behavior Masculinity Femininity and Androgyny 1Masculinity instrumental roles taking charge standing up for themselves etc aThree ways adolescent boys get into gangsiThey can be jumped inshows strengthiiThey can show fearlessness in some deed killing someoneiiiThey can engage in a callous sex act gang rape2Femininity expressive rolestaking care of others being kind and nurturing 3Androgyny combination of masculinefeminine traits in one personaNot placing a strict role4Gender role transcendence when an individuals competence is at issue it should be conceptualized on a person basis
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