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PSYC 2000 Study Guide - Sensory Memory, Long-Term Memory, Suggestibility

6 pages26 viewsFall 2014

Course Code
PSYC 2000

of 6
Introduction to Psychology: Memory
Module 26: Introduction to Memory
The Phenomenon of Memory
Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of
Information-Processing Models
Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system
Storage: the retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage
Information-Processing Model: Connectionism
3 stages:
o1. Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in
the memory system
o2. Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the
info is stored or forgotten
o3. Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the
memory system
Information-Processing Model: Updates
Some info goes directly to long-term memory
Working memory: conscious, active processing of incoming information, and of
information retrieved from long term memory
Module 27: Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
Automatic Processing
Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, and of well
learned information
oWell-learned info
Effortful Processing
Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Effortful Processing
Rehearsal: conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode
it for storage
Spacing effect: tendency for distributed practice to yield better long-term retention than is
achieved through massed practice
Serial position effect: tendency to recall best the last and first terms in a list
What We Encode – Levels of Processing
Visual encoding: encoding of picture images
Acoustic encoding: encoding of sound
Semantic encoding: encoding of meaning
The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of
course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do… After the
procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they
can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the
whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.
What We Encode – Visual Encoding
Imagery: mental pictures
Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and
organizational devices
What We Encode – Organizing Information
Chunking:organizing items into familiar manageable units
oMiet nnie veass a ni ttchis
oTime nine saves a in stitch
oA stitch in time saves nine
What We Encode – Organizing Information
Hierarchies: a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and
Module 28: Storage: Retaining Information
Sensory Memory
Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
oTenths of a second
Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
o3-4 seconds
Working/Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
Working/Short-Term Memory
oCan hold about 7+/-2 “chunks” of information
oLittle recall at about 12 seconds
Long-Term Memory
oLong term memory is limitless
Storing Memories in the Brain – Synaptic Changes
Long-term potentiation: an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid
Stress Hormones and Memory
Excitement or stress leads to strong memories
Flashbulb memory: clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Storing Implicit and Explicit Memories
Amnesia: the loss of memory
oImplicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection

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