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Modules 26-30

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2000
Professor
All

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Introduction to Psychology: Memory
Module 26: Introduction to Memory
The Phenomenon of Memory
Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of
information
Information-Processing Models
Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system
Storage: the retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage
Information-Processing Model: Connectionism
3 stages:
o1. Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in
the memory system
o2. Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the
info is stored or forgotten
o3. Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the
memory system
Information-Processing Model: Updates
Some info goes directly to long-term memory
Working memory: conscious, active processing of incoming information, and of
information retrieved from long term memory
Module 27: Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
Automatic Processing
Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, and of well
learned information
Includes:
oSpace
oTime
oFrequency
oWell-learned info
Effortful Processing
Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Effortful Processing
Rehearsal: conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode
it for storage
Spacing effect: tendency for distributed practice to yield better long-term retention than is
achieved through massed practice
Serial position effect: tendency to recall best the last and first terms in a list
What We Encode – Levels of Processing
Visual encoding: encoding of picture images
Acoustic encoding: encoding of sound
Semantic encoding: encoding of meaning
The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of
course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do… After the
procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they
can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the
whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.
What We Encode – Visual Encoding
Imagery: mental pictures
Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and
organizational devices
What We Encode – Organizing Information
Chunking:organizing items into familiar manageable units

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Description
Introduction to Psychology MemoryModule 26 Introduction to MemoryThe Phenomenon of MemoryMemory the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of informationInformationProcessing ModelsEncoding the processing of information into the memory systemStorage the retention of encoded information over timeRetrieval the process of getting information out of memory storageInformationProcessing Model Connectionism3 stageso1 Sensory memory the immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory systemo2 Shortterm memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is stored or forgotteno3 Longterm memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory systemInformationProcessing Model UpdatesSome info goes directly to longterm memoryWorking memory conscious active processing of incoming information and of information retrieved from long term memoryModule 27 Encoding Getting Information InHow We EncodeAutomatic Processing
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