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Ch 2_

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PSYC 2000
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Chapter 2stPhineas Gage 1 patient to show relation between personality and frontal lobes He was a foreman of railway construction in the 1800s They were shattering large sections of rock with explosives Sept 13 1848 he had a tamping rod blown through his skull He never lossed consciousness and survived Before the accident he was a capable worker and a nice person After the accident he was rude profane and irritable This personality change is fairly typical for someone with damage to the frontal lobes 12 years later he started to have epileptic seizures in 1860 and died a few months later 1Neuroscience how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes The nervous systemaCentral nervous systemCNSbrain and spinal cordbPeripheral nervous systemPNSnerves that connect brain and spinal cord to every other part of the bodyiSomatic nervous system transmits info about body movementsexternal environment iiAutonomic nervous systemtransmits information to and from internal organsglands Involuntary1Sympathetic nervous system gets body for action and output of energy Fight or flight response 2Para sympathetic nervous system slows body down conserving energy2Neuronsnerve cells communicate information in brain and throughout body aGlial cells support and nourish neurons Make up 90 of the mass of your brainbParts of the NeuroniCell bodysoma contains nucleushelp neuron carry out its functionsiiDendrites branchlike extensions of cell body receive information from other cells iiiAxon long extension from the cell body that conveys information towards other neurons muscles or glands ivMyelin sheath white fatty coasting that insulates the axon It insulates and increases the speed of transmission vTerminal buttons send signals from one neuron to adjacent cells viSynapse connections between neurons viiSynaptic cleft space between two neurons cPresynaptic neuron neuron sending an impulsedPostsynaptic neuronneuron receiving the implulseeNeurotransmitterschemicals produced and released by neurons that cause changes in other neurons
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