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PYSC 2000 Test 2

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PSYC 2000
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Chapter 5 States of ConsciousnessConsciousness awareness of various cognitive processes such as sleeping dreaming concentrating and making decisionsWaking consciousness all thoughts feelings and perceptions that occur when we are awake and reasonably alertAltered states of consciousness mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousnessExplaining Waking ConsciousnessFirst consciousness was psychologys primary concernthFell out of favor in early 20 century Focus on directly observable measurable behaviorChange in 1960s alternative states of consciousness rise in cognitive psychology advances in neuroscience dissatisfaction with behaviorismConsciousness and NonconsciousnessCommon view consciousness is only a small peak emerging from a mass of unconscious mental activityFreud sexual and aggressive instincts that remain largely hiddenNonconscious not in conscious thoughtsCognitive psychologists see consciousness as firstperson element of information processing sense of selfTogether different brain centers provide the self with an overall orientationWhen something new unusual or unexpected occurs one or more of brain division enters consciousnessConsciousness and AdaptationMany of todays psychologists view consciousness as highly adaptivePinker consciousness is a necessary element of human sociabilityOur survival depends on how we get along with the groupDaydreaming and FantasyJames Thurbers The Secret Life of Walter MittyDaydreams apparently effortless shifts in attention away from hereandnow into a private world of makebelieveUrge to daydream comes in waves about every 90 minutes peaking between 12 and 2 pmAverage person spends aboutwaking hours fantasizingMost daydreams are variations on a central theme unfulfilled wishes and goalsPositive pleasant playful entertaining scenariosNegativeextremely achievement oriented people recurring themes of frustration guilt fear of failure and hostilityScattered anxious people loosely connected worrisome daydreams little pleasurePurposeful curious peoplesolve problems think ahead and develop insightsNegative aspects of daydreamsoInterference with productive activitiesoReplacement of reallife relationships
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