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Chapter 9 14

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PSYC 2000
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Chapter 9 Life Span Development I Developmental Psychology studies agerelated changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to deathStudying DevelopmentoKey Theoretical Debates Nature vs NurtureHeredity vs environmentContinuity vs StagesContinuous and gradual vs periods of abrupt change followed by periods of little change Stability vs ChangeCharacteristics maintained vs characteristics vary over timeoThe interactionist perspective which recently evolved into the Biopsychosocial Model oResearch Methods KNOW THESE Cohort group of people thats going through roughly the same thing at the same timeCrossSectional ResearchDifferent participants of various ages are compared at one point in time to determine agerelated differencesLongitudinal ResearchThe same participants are studies at various ages to determine agerelated changes CrosssectionalLongitudinal AdvantagesGives information about Gives information about age differences changes Quick Increased reliability Less expensive More indepth information per Typically larger sample participant Disadvantages Cohort effects are difficult to More expensiveseparate Time consuming Restricted generalizability measures behaviors at only one point in time oCultural Guidelines for Developmental Research Culture may be the most important determinant Development cannot be studied outside its Sociocultural contextoThree Stages of Prenatal Development 1 Germinal Period conception to uterine implantation2 Embryonic Period uterine implantation through the eighth week3 Fetal Period eighth week until birthoHazards to Prenatal Development Teratogens environmental agents that cause damage during prenatal development by crossing the placental barrierCategories of teratogens include oLegal and illegal drugsoDiseases and malnutritionoExposure to Xrays and stress exposure1Physical DevelopmentoEarly ChildhoodThree Key areas or early childhood development Brain Motor Sensoryperceptual developmentoBrain DevelopmentAs a child grows neurons grow in size and the number of dendrites and axons increase oSensory and Perceptual Development Smell taste touch and hearing are well developed at birth Vision is developed poorly at birthoAdolescence and PubertyoAdulthood Middle Age Female MenopauseMale ClimactericLate Adulthood Primary Aging gradual inevitable changes versus age changes due to disease disuse or neglectSecondary Aging changes resulting from disease disuse or neglect Cognitive DevelopmentoJean Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively primitive level and progress in distinct stages Piagets schemas are the most basic unit of intellect which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment know table 93oSchemas grow and change due to Assimilation absorbing new information into existing schemasAccommodation adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with new informationoPiagets four Stages Sensorimotor birth to 2 yearsPreoperational 27 years Concrete operational 711 years Formal operational 11 years and up Chapter 10 Lifespan and Development II Social Moral and Personality DevelopmentoSocial DevelopmentAttachment strong affect ional bond with special others that endures over time Found in both people and animals Lorenzs imprinting studies suggest biological argument for attachment Harlows work with monkeysfeeding or contact comfort2
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